Welcome, Guest
You have to register before you can post on our site.



Search Forums

(Advanced Search)

Forum Statistics
» Members: 55
» Latest member: benoittsamuell
» Forum threads: 308
» Forum posts: 309

Full Statistics

Online Users
There are currently 24 online users.
» 0 Member(s) | 23 Guest(s)

Latest Threads
Nationals 2022 time insid...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: Channing
04-18-2023, 12:21 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 114
Giants waste stel lar get...
Forum: iPhone Apps
Last Post: Channing
04-18-2023, 12:20 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 107
Duane Underwood Jr. dyes ...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: Channing
04-18-2023, 12:18 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 89
Baseball birthdays for Se...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: Channing
04-18-2023, 12:17 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 94
Upcoming IPO in India
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: upcomingipo
01-01-2023, 11:45 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 316
Best Trading App in India
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: besttradingsapp
01-01-2023, 10:28 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 264
Risk-Optimal Arrangement ...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: llkktth178
11-20-2022, 08:51 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 406
A Reluctant Online Furnit...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: llkktth178
11-20-2022, 08:49 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 361
Guide to Essential Oil Di...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: llkktth178
11-20-2022, 08:48 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 395
Where Is Stainless Steel ...
Forum: EasyDesktop 10
Last Post: llkktth178
11-20-2022, 08:47 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 355

  Nationals 2022 time inside of examine
Posted by: Channing - 04-18-2023, 12:21 AM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

This tale was excerpted versus Jessica Camerato's Nationals Combat e-newsletter.  Towards browse the entire publication,click on listed here.  Andsubscribeto acquire it continuously within just your inbox. It's period for the Nationals 2022 time in just evaluation.  Towards the initial working day of Spring Performing exercises in just West Palm Seashore, Fla. , in the direction of video game No.  162 past 7 days at Citi Marketplace, their roster seemed substantially choice.  Allow for's choose a further appear to be into the Nats' 55-107 time. Defining momentThe Exchange Deadline upon Aug.  2 was the turning reality of the year with a blockbuster transfer that modified the landscape of the league.  Within aneight-participant bundle, the Nationals traded specifically fielderJuan Sotoand to start with basemanJosh Bellto the Padres inside replace for shortstopCJ Abrams, still left-handerMacKenzie Gore, very first baseman/specified hitterLuke Voit, outfield prospectsRobert Hassell IIIandJames Picket, and righty prospectJarlin Susana. What we learnedSoto experienced been the centerpiece of the franchise, in particular soon after the 2021 Exchange Deadline that sawMax ScherzerandTrea Turnerdealt in the direction of the Dodgers.  Yet in just July, Soto who experienced 2 several years becoming upon his deal grew to become accessible within just exchange talks Whilst Washington considered it would not realize an extension.  Just months afterwards, we found the Nationals' upcoming would not be developed above the 23-12 months-previous slugger.  In its place, the basis is poised in direction of be other younger avid gamers, such as Abrams, minute basemanLuis Garca, catcherKeibert Ruizand immediately-handersJosiah GrayandCade Cavalli. Ideal developmentThe Nationals strengthened theirfarm systemwith the Padres megadeal https://www.washingtonfanshoponline.com.  Hassell grew to become their fresh No.  1 possibility, for each MLB Pipeline, Picket is rated No.  3 and Susana arrives within at No.  8.  Wooden now was called Washington's co-hitter of the yr in just itsMinor League awards.  Inside of addition, the Nats picked 18-calendar year-previous, 5-instrument outfielder Elijah Greenwith thefifth over-all pickin this yr's Draft.  Environmentally friendly is rated as Washington's No.  2 probability. Room for improvementThe Nationals contain numerous elements of their roster in the direction of protect this winter season, and 1 that was a repeated concept during the year was setting up pitching.  The starting off rotation was shorthanded through major harm in direction of Stephen Strasburg and Joe Ross.  Cavalli, Evan Lee and Jackson Tetreault as well were being sidelined.  These who did choose the mound continually struggled towards transfer deep into online games.  As a end result, the bullpen was taxed.  Supervisor Dave Martinez's intent future year is for commencing pitchers toward shift 5-additionally innings.


Print this item

  Giants waste stel lar get started by means of Alex Cobb
Posted by: Channing - 04-18-2023, 12:20 AM - Forum: iPhone Apps - No Replies

The phrase regrettable contains been tossed in excess of relatively a little bit when Alex Cobb can take the mound for the Giants, and for Terrific motive.  Getting into the working day, the veteran righty experienced pitched towards a middling 4. 26 Generation still that doesnt inform the total tale.  Cobb required Technology sat at 2. 88, above a operate lessen, which is the biggest differential among required and real ERAs amongst pitchers who comprise authorized a least of 200 balls in just participate in. Cobb pitched substantially added within just line with his needed data within just Friday night time 4-2 reduction toward the Cubs at Oracle Park, tossing 6-in addition innings of a person-work ball and punching out a year-significant 11 batters.  This year, even though, Cobb and the Giants ended up regrettable upon the other aspect of the ball. ?Box scoreThe Giants outperformed the Cubs within basically over just about every route except if as soon as it arrived toward bringing operates house.  San Francisco batters tallied 13 hits and stored Chicago towards 6, all even though hanging out simply just 6 moments when compared in the direction of Chicago 14.  However top quality is greater than amount, and the well timed strike the Giants ended up looking for eluded them all night time. We drove the baseball tonight, supervisor Gabe Kapler explained.  We experienced significant-good quality at-bats ?and we werent capable towards just take the massive strike.  We were being not able toward generate that a person blow that would include altered the match for us, and that seriously the tale of the recreation, in just my view. That tale performed out continually all evening lengthy, beginning in just the initial inning.  All 5 batters the Giants delivered toward the plate realized foundation, nevertheless they walked absent with practically nothing towards demonstrate for it. Tommy La Stella led variables off with a line-motivation one off Cubs novice Marcus Stroman, nonetheless he was instantly out at minute foundation as soon as Luis Gonzlez grounded into a fielder decision in just the following at-bat.  Then heritage quickly frequent alone, as the Cubs had been equipped toward once more erase the guide runner upon a fielder final decision, this just one coming upon a Wilmer Flores grounder. Potentially the utmost pivotal participate in of the match arrived 2 at-bats afterwards, at the time Mike Yastrzemski headed in direction of the plate with runners upon very first and minute.  He grew to become upon a slider versus Stroman and belted it in the direction of still left sector for a foundation strike. Off the bat, it seemed Wonderful adequate in direction of just take the Giants upon the board early.  Still Cubs remaining fielder Ian Happ fielded the ball cleanly and fired a dart towards catcher Willson Contreras, who effortlessly used the tag toward Flores, who was making an attempt towards ranking towards instant, for the 3rd out. By yourself shift back again, and youre which include, Hey, did he receive him? Did he crank out a Terrific change in excess of 3rd foundation? Did he get hold of a superior leap? Was he mindful and inform? He was, Kapler explained.  Happ particularly generated a optimistic toss, and Contreras a Terrific tag.  All this is in direction of say that if we ranking there, probably we just take a minimal intellect of steam, and we werent in a position in direction of do that. Stated Flores: He couldnt consist of created a superior toss https://www.sandiegolodge.com. As soon as the initially inning established the tone, the narrative ongoing all night.  The Giants constantly produced make contact with and drove the ball effectively, however they fell shorter inside the execution, completing the evening getting long gone 3-for-11 with runners inside of scoring posture.  San Francisco was upon the brink of getting near out till the backside of the 9th inning, Even though Flores strike his 15th dwelling function of the year. By yourself hold stringing with each other that numerous hits, the operates will begin crossing, Cobb stated.  That basically didnt come about tonight.  It was unusual. Cobb is all much too acquainted with the irritation that the Giants lineup felt upon Friday.  It a complicated tablet in the direction of swallow every time they evidently did a large amount of Excellent components, however the achievement didnt adhere to.  Cobb incorporates leaned upon the principle of trusting the method: It labored for him tonight, and it can assistance the Giants flow upon in opposition to a hard night. There a handful of variables that we can handle and exertion upon, Cobb explained.  If by yourself progress in the direction of do that, the possibilities are relocating toward be that youre likely in the direction of include some good results.  If yourself test toward do as well a lot or test in direction of be anyone alternate than youre meant in the direction of be, undesirable variables stop up occurring. At the stop, throughout 162 video games, itll finally even out for on your own.


Print this item

  Duane Underwood Jr. dyes hair blond for Worldwide Baseball Regular
Posted by: Channing - 04-18-2023, 12:18 AM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

This tale was excerpted against Justice delos Santos' Pirates Fight publication. Towards examine the complete publication,  simply click in this article. And subscribe in direction of attain it persistently within your inbox.While he noticed Duane Underwood Jr.'s clean hair colour,  Mitch Keller claimed what was upon merely pertaining to every person's brain."Holy s---,  person, " Keller explained. "Wow!"The response was legitimate. Though Underwood looked inside the Pirates' clubhouse past this 7 days,  his hair was no more time a organic darkish brown,  nonetheless a impressive deep gold.Underwood didn't dye his hair basically simply because he ideal toward change factors up. In advance of the Entire world Baseball Traditional https://www.pittsburghlodge.com,  participants of Workers Puerto Rico will be dyeing their hair blond,  proceeding the culture versus the preceding event in just 2017."It's a desire appear real,  male, " Underwood claimed. "I can keep in mind getting a tiny young and observing the Conventional. Staying upon that worldwide position,  it's an honor and a blessing. Towards be ready towards signify my family members and the region of Puerto Rico will be a particularly exceptional knowledge."This is fresh new territory for Underwood,  who experienced in no way dyed his hair prior to. He hadn't incredibly accomplished anything at all with his hair,  time period,  normally substance in the direction of adhere with a taper fade.In direction of complete the appear to be,  Underwood's sister,  Kayla a hair stylist with a ten years of practical experience flew toward Bradenton,  Fla.,  versus Atlanta in the direction of bleach his hair. The initial bleaching consultation didn't produce the built achievement,  turning Underwood's hair excess of a crimson shade. Nevertheless just after yet another consultation,  the Underwood siblings attained the favored feel. Underwood incorporates just one extra consultation within just shop; his hair is by now a golden shade,  however he demands it in direction of be platinum.Avoidable in the direction of say,  Keller wasn't the basically Pirate in the direction of percentage his head."I've received a couple of double requires, " Underwood claimed. "Every person's variety of specifically supplied me a visual appeal,  however I consider I'm rocking it. I put on't head it at all. I've in no way performed everything with my hair,  individually,  nevertheless I'm taking pleasure in this. This is enjoyable. It could be everything I do for the relax of the 12 months."

Print this item

  Baseball birthdays for September 29
Posted by: Channing - 04-18-2023, 12:17 AM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Who are the suitable gamers born upon just about every working day of the calendar year? We contain a checklist for each working day upon the calendar.Right here's a subjective rating of the final 5 for Sept. 29:1) Ed MorrisBorn within Brooklyn,  N.Y.,  Morris grew up within California and was 1 of the to start with gamers in opposition to that nation in direction of be a proficient baseball star. The still left-hander released a vocation 38.4 WAR,  and he was the workers ace for the Pittsburgh Alleghenies within just the mid-1880s. Morris was undoubtedly just one of,  if not the greatest still left-passed pitcher in just the 19th century. Nicknamed "Cannonball" for the pace he accomplished upon the mound,  Morris performed for Pittsburgh inside of 3 alternate leagues. Inside his initially year within just the substantial leagues within 1884,  he gained 34 video games,  just after that up with 39 wins inside of 1885 and then tossing a background 12 shutouts inside of 1886. Within 1888,  he tossed 4 consecutive shutouts ?a mark that stood right until the Los Angeles Dodgers' Dress in Drysdale broke it in just 1968.2) Mike McCormickThe remaining-hander pitched 16 many years within the Majors,  11 of all those with the Fresh new York/San Francisco Giants. He attained double-digit wins 8 moments in just his vocation,  still his perfect period was 1967,  Although he received 22 video games and both of those the Nationwide League Cy Youthful and Comeback Participant of the 12 months awards. He was the merely Giants pitcher towards get the Cy More youthful till Tim Lincecum gained it inside possibly 2008 and 2009. He was component of the Giants' NL pennant-successful club in just 1962,  still once relocating only 5-5 with a 5.38 Generation,  he did not pitch inside the Earth Sequence in opposition to the eventual winner Fresh York Yankees.3) Steve BusbyOh for what may include been. Once becoming drafted by way of the Kansas Town Royals within 1971,  Busby pitched 8 many years inside the Majors and tossed 2 no-hitters in opposition to the Detroit Tigers and Milwaukee Brewers. Right after showing up inside 5 game titles within 1972 and heading 3-1 with a 1.58 Technology,  Busby received 16 online games inside 1973 and no-strike the Tigers. He no-strike the Brewers and received a profession-superior 22 game titles within 1974 and further a further 18 wins inside of 1975. He was an American League All-Star within just '74 and '75,  however then shoulder disorders surfaced,  ensuing in just rotator cuff surgical procedure carried out by way of Dr. Frank Jobe inside of 1976. Busby,  who neglected the complete 1977 time,  was the initial pitcher towards include that fashion of surgical treatment. Busby would hardly ever be the exact same,  successful basically 8 online games put together within his ultimate 3 seasons.4) Tyler MahleA 7th-spherical opt for as a result of the Cincinnati Reds in just the 2013 MLB Draft,  Mahle acquired double-digit wins for the very first year inside his vocation inside of 2021,  post a 13-6 heritage. He created a Nationwide League-excellent 33 commences for Cincinnati and struck out 210 batters,  though issuing 64 walks and completing basically 20 innings shy of 200 for the period. Mahle experienced a no-hitter and excellent match in direction of his credit rating inside of the Minors ahead of creating his Primary League debut with the Reds upon Aug. 27,  2017.5) Warren CromartieAlong with Ellis Valentine and Corridor of Famer Andre Dawson,  Cromartie was aspect of an incredibly proficient outfield inside of Montreal. Cromartie was thought of the centre of the club all through his tenure inside of Montreal towards 1977-83. He shifted in direction of 1st foundation within 1980 and '81 and,  When not regarded as a ability hitter,  Cromartie belted a occupation easiest 14 homers within just 1980. He remaining in the direction of engage in in just Japan within 1984,  exactly where his supervisor,  the Eastern dwelling function king,  Sadaharu Oh,  treated a flaw within his swing. Cromartie then strike more than 30 homers inside every of his 1st a few seasons for the Yomiuri Giants. Cromartie returned towards the Majors inside of 1991 and completed his occupation,  batting.313 within 69 game titles with the Kansas Metropolis Royals.Some others of notice:Heath BellBell compiled a few 40-help save seasons and 3 30-preserve seasons all through his vocation. He could be suitable regarded for preserving 41 consecutive online games https://www.sfgproshop.com,  tying the franchise heritage fastened through San Diego Padres legend Trevor Hoffman. A 3-period Nationwide League All-Star conclusion,  Bell was a 2-period champion of the NL Rolaids Aid Award and was referred to as the NL Reliever of the 12 months within just 2010.Jake WestbrookWestbrook was taken in just the 1996 MLB Draft through the Colorado Rockies,  nevertheless he is least complicated regarded for his 9 a long time put in with Cleveland. Westbrook gained 14 game titles within 2004 and was referred to as in direction of the American League All-Star personnel. He adopted that up with back again-in direction of-back again 15-acquire strategies within just 2005 and 06. Following feeding on straight elbow surgical procedure inside of June 2008,  he overlooked the full 2009 year,  returning inside 2010. He was shipped in the direction of the St. Louis Cardinals at the Exchange Deadline and went 4-4 down the extend for the Redbirds. Westbrook attained a International Collection ring with St. Louis within just 2011 and decided on up the gain throughout the Cardinals' unbelievable comeback within just Video game 6 in opposition to the Texas Rangers.Have to have towards perspective further more baseball birthdays for Sept. 29? Locate the detailed checklist upon Baseball Reference.

Print this item

  Upcoming IPO in India
Posted by: upcomingipo - 01-01-2023, 11:45 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Check the complete list of upcoming IPO in India and invest in new IPOs online. Know everything about IPOs and plan to invest in this Top 10 Upcoming IPO in India. An initial public offering (IPO) is the process of releasing shares from a private company to public, institutional investors and retail investors.

Print this item

  Best Trading App in India
Posted by: besttradingsapp - 01-01-2023, 10:28 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

If you are Looking which is the best trading app in India? Here we have listed top 10 mobile trading apps in India along with their benefits & features. All Stock Brokers have their own trading apps and they continuously updating its features so that it can be considered as Best Trading App in India.

Print this item

  Risk-Optimal Arrangement of Stiffeners in Steel Plate Shear Walls
Posted by: llkktth178 - 11-20-2022, 08:51 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Risk-Optimal Arrangement of Stiffeners in Steel Plate Shear Walls

Placement of ferritic stainless steel plate shear walls in the building cores around the elevators and stairs necessitates door-type openings in these systems. Because of large dimensions of door openings, the energy dissipation capacity drops significantly and thus, the probability of out-of-plane buckling under lateral load increases. Accordingly, introducing stiffeners around the opening increases the amount of dissipated energy and improves the performance of the SPSW system. This paper evaluates the seismic risk of SPSW systems with different arrangements of stiffeners around the door opening. Risk, in this context, denotes the probability of failure times the cost of failure of a given SPSW. The probability of failure is computed through a finite element reliability analysis in which material properties, element geometries, and the lateral force are random variables. The failure event is described by a limit-state function as the exceedance of the drift ratio of the SPSW from a prescribed threshold. The drift ratio is computed by subjecting the finite element model to non-linear static analysis in ABAQUS. The reliability analysis is conducted for a variety of single-story SPSW models having door opening with different arrangements of stiffeners and also for a typical SPSW model without opening as a base model. Next, decision analysis is employed to identify the optimal arrangement, i.e., the one that is associated with the minimum risk. Finally, the effect of risk aversion on the optimal decision is studied by introducing risk-averse utility functions with different degrees of risk aversion.


A typical 304 stainless steel plate shear wall (SPSW) consists of an unstiffened thin infill plate connected to vertical and horizontal boundary frame members, i.e., columns and beams, respectively. The lateral load is transferred through the infill plate by the principal tension stresses, as shown in Figure 1A. The infill plate is allowed to buckle in shear and consequently forms a diagonal tension field during an earthquake. Previous studies, both experimentally and numerically, have shown that this system exhibits a high ductility and hysteretic energy dissipation capacity compared with conventional braced frames and concrete shear walls (Caccese et al., 1993; Elgaaly et al., 1993; Berman and Bruneau, 2003). Another advantage of SPSWs is the ability to provide openings in the infill plate, which may be required for architectural purposes. Roberts and Sabouri-Ghomi (1992) conducted the first study on SPSW systems with opening. They performed a series of cyclic quasi-static testing on unstiffened SPSWs with a circular opening located at the center of the plate. All the SPSWs tested exhibited stable S-shaped hysteresis loops and adequate ductility. They showed that the strength and stiffness of a perforated SPSW can be approximated conservatively by applying a linear reduction factor to the strength and stiffness of a similar unperforated SPSW. Daftari and Deylami (2000) studied the effect of plate thickness, opening height to width ratio, and the areal percentage of the opening for more than 50 different SPSWs with a central rectangular opening. They determined the optimum aspect ratio for the opening. Paik (2008) obtained a closed-form empirical formula for predicting the ultimate shear strength of 316 stainless steel ship plate with central circular opening under shear loading by the regression analysis. Pellegrino et al. (2009) investigated the influence of the dimension, position, shape (circular or rectangular), and orientation of a hole with respect to the panel slenderness and aspect ratio in steel plates with one perforation subjected to shear loading. Valizadeh et al. (2012) experimentally evaluated the effects of opening dimensions and slenderness factors of plates on the seismic behavior of SPSWs with a circular opening at the center of the panel. Sabouri-Ghomi et al. (2012) studied the behavior of both stiffened and unstiffened SPSWs with a single rectangular opening with different sizes and locations through a non-linear finite element analysis. Hosseinzadeh and Tehranizadeh (2012) studied the non-linear behavior of SPSWs with fully-stiffened large rectangular openings used as windows or doors. Alavi and Nateghi (2013) experimentally investigated the seismic behavior of SPSWs with a central perforation along with diagonal stiffeners. Bhowmick (2014) developed a shear strength equation for unstiffened perforated SPSWs with a circular perforation at the center. They assessed the proposed equation by analyzing a series of single-story perforated SPSWs with different aspect ratios and different perforation diameters. Sabouri-Ghomi et al. (2015) experimentally studied the structural behavior of stiffened SPSWs with two rectangular openings and with different separations subjected to cyclic loads. Also, they determined the shear stiffness and ultimate shear strength of the SPSWs theoretically through the plate-frame interaction model.

Placement of SPSWs in the building cores around the elevators and stairs necessitates door-type openings. Furthermore, because of large dimensions of door openings, the energy dissipation capacity drops significantly and thus, the probability of out-of-plane buckling under lateral load increases. Accordingly, introducing stiffeners around the opening increases the amount of dissipated energy and improves the performance of the SPSW system, as recommended by AISC Design Guide 20 (AISC, 2007).

However, construction of those SPSWs in which the vertical and horizontal stiffeners continue to boundary elements, as shown in Figure 1B, is significantly costly. The underlying reasons are the need for more nickel alloy steel and significantly more cutting and welding for connections, which requires further material, labor, and quality control. As shown later in the paper, based on Iran's Cost Catalog (Planning Budget Organization, 2016), the cost will increase by 15%. The extra stiffeners also elongate the construction process and entails workmanship difficulties and defects. The present paper is the first to evaluate the seismic risk of SPSW systems with different arrangements of stiffeners around the door opening. Risk, in this context, denotes the probability of failure times the cost of failure of a given SPSW. The probability of failure is computed through a finite element reliability analysis (Ghanem and Spanos, 1991; Der Kiureghian and Zhang, 1999; Haldar and Mahadevan, 2000; Imai and Frangopol, 2000; Sudret and Der Kiureghian, 2002; Haukaas and Der Kiureghian, 2007) in which material properties, element geometries, and the lateral force are random variables. The failure event is described by a limit-state function as the exceedance of the drift ratio of the SPSW from a prescribed threshold. The drift ratio is computed through a finite element model under non-linear static analysis in ABAQUS (Karlsson and Sorensen, 2013). The reliability analysis is carried out for a variety of single-story SPSW models that include door openings with different arrangements of stiffeners and also for a typical SPSW model that lacks the door opening as a base model. Then, the risk-optimal arrangement is identified through decision analysis. Finally, risk-averse utility functions are introduced to study the effect of risk aversion on the optimal decision.

The single-story SPSW considered in this research, is part of a symmetrical office building located in Tehran, Iran. The floor plan of the building and the considered SPSW is shown in Figure 2A. The roof dead and live loads are assumed 0.5 and 0.15 ton/m2, respectively. Also, Figure 2B illustrates the base SPSW model, i.e., the one without opening. The height and bay width of this model are assumed 4 and 6 m, respectively. Frames other than those containing SPSWs are gravity frames and therefore, SPSWs carry the entire lateral load. Also, gravity loads are not carried by beams of the considered SPSW and transmitted by transverse beams to beam-column connections. The structure is designed for a very high seismic zone with a site-specific earthquake acceleration of 0.35 g according to the Iranian Seismic Code (BHRC, 2014).

The SPSW is designed based on the recommendations of AISC Seismic Provisions (ANSI/AISC 341-16, 2016) and AISC Design Guide 20 (AISC, 2007), which presents a capacity design method for SPSWs with solid infill plates. The section for boundary beams is selected to carry the forces due to the yielding of the infill high-strength 2507 stainless steel plate, and the section for the columns is selected to carry the forces developed in the yielded infill plate and the plastic hinges at the ends of the top beam. Also, in order to ensure inelastic beam action at the anticipated points and to reduce the bending moment demand to columns, the beam-column connection details include reduced beam sections (RBS) at both ends. Thus, the "weak beam-strong column" criterion is guaranteed. The RBS dimensions are designed in accordance with AISC 358-16 (ANSI/AISC 358-16, 2016). The sections of beams, columns, and stiffeners for the SPSWs are W360X287, W310X202, and W310X28.3, respectively.

The door-type opening is conventionally introduced at the mid-span, as shown in Figure 3. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the door opening are assumed 1.5 and 2.5 m, respectively. Figure 3 shows the six considered arrangements of stiffeners around the opening. Arrangement 1 is the recommendation of AISC Design Guide 20 (AISC, 2007). In the other arrangements, all different combinations of the proposed vertical and horizontal stiffeners are considered. It will be shown later in the paper that the code arrangement is the most conservative one amongst all, and will only be optimal if the designer is extremely risk averse. For this reason, arrangements that are more conservative than this arrangement, i.e., the ones which have more stiffeners, are not included in the analysis.

Print this item

  A Reluctant Online Furniture Shopper Orders Article's Most Popular Sofa
Posted by: llkktth178 - 11-20-2022, 08:49 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

A Reluctant Online Furniture Shopper Orders Article's Most Popular Sofa

Moving is the worst. Everyone knows there's no joy to be found sorting through all your things, packing up whatever you keep, and then paying someone to lug it out, or worse, having to do it yourself. But decorating the new place, that's the fun part, right? For me, it was debatable.

When I was getting ready to move into a one-bedroom apartment in Brooklyn with my boyfriend, John, I loved the idea of decorating with a fresh slate. (All of my "saved" posts on Instagram from aspirational home decor bloggers could finally be put to good use!) But as I said, I loved the idea of it all. Actually executing my plans proved way more difficult than I had anticipated. There are just so. many. options.

John doesn't get as jazzed as I do about entryway ideas or which chairs look right with our farmhouse table, so I couldn't count on him to help pick the small stuff. But the couch he was invested in. It's where we'll spend most of our time and undoubtably what we'd spend the most money on, so it had to be right.

We knew we wanted a camel-colored leather style, so that helped narrow things down a little. But we were still swimming in a sea of options. West Elm had some gorgeous sofas but the long delivery times meant we'd be without a couch for 5+ weeks. (Yes, I should have planned better. Shush.) That was out.

RELATED: We Tried It: The 3D Decorating Tool Everyone Will Use in the Future

We struggled with the idea of buying a couch online at all since we couldn't actually sit on it first. And because sites like Wayfair and AllModern sell so many different brands, it's hard to properly research or hear firsthand from someone who's purchased that exact couch.

The journalist in me wanted multiple sources to confirm I was going to love this couch. There is just so much trust you can put in an anonymous reviewer.

Then I found myself on Article's site. The online-only, direct-to-consumer brand had the style I was looking for — the Sven tan sectional — and it could be delivered within 10 days, potentially even quicker. I'd heard from friends who had good experiences with the brand. The only complaints I could find online were that the back cushions weren't very firm, and the color is lighter than expected. I know that a beautiful patina takes time, and I sleep on the plushest mattress known to man so I wasn't too worried about either. They also have a pretty great return policy, which eased my mind. If I wanted to exchange, it's free, or returns are $49. I would just need to hang on to the packaging until I was sure, otherwise it's an extra $50.

Honestly, taking out my credit card to pull the trigger on such a large purchase was the hardest part of the whole ordering process. It retails for $2,999 with the chaise, or $1,799 without.

I placed my order and got a call five days later that it was time to schedule my delivery. I had the flexibility to pick whatever day I liked, but was limited to the window of time they assigned to me 24-hours before, so it's best to pick a day you have completely free.

I did not do this. Learn from me.

I scheduled mine for my actual move-in day, so with my movers coming in the morning to my old place, I crossed my fingers for a later delivery window. Naturally, I was assigned 8:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. (See, not a good planner.) It was going to be a hectic day.

RELATED: We Tried It: Can a Foam Mattress in a Box Really Replace Your Old Spring Bed?

I asked their customer service team to give me a 30-minute heads up, and they happily obliged. When I got the call, I rushed over to the new apartment to find a big Article truck on my block. My landlord wasn't quite ready for me, so the delivery men ended up having to leave my couch in the hallway. They would have put it in my living room because I opted for the "inside room" delivery option, which was $50.

Shipping is free for orders over $999 if you only want it delivered to the ground floor of your building. It's $120 (with a discounted rate for orders over the $999 mark) if you want them to bring it inside and assemble it, but I wouldn't recommend shelling out the extra bucks because it's so easy to do yourself (more on that below).

Me and my new couch were off to a rough start, but things only got better once we got it inside. The Sven sectional comes in two big pieces so there's not a whole lot of assembly required. All you need to do is screw on the legs and align the latch that joins the two pieces securely together. John actually said he thought it was the easiest thing we did that day.

Now that we've had nearly two months to settle in with our couch, I've grown to love it even more than expected. It's incredibly comfortable — I didn't find the cushions to be under-stuffed, but rather just right. You can lean back and settle in, without feeling like you're stuck in that position till the end of time. The reviews were right about the color, though. It doesn't have that rustic, lived-in look fresh out of the box. That will come the more we use it. I'm excited to see what it'll look like six months from now.

The leather is soft, but not precious. I've already spilled more drinks on it than I care to admit and it's almost like the liquid rolls right off. And I think any marks that do appear add to the character.

It's also deeper and more spacious than most of the other couches I considered, which has been a treat. John and I can sprawl out simultaneously. The chaise is huge in fact. My apartment is not even 600 square feet, so if I was going to take up most of the living room with a sectional, it needed to be one that we didn't want to get up from. And so far, we haven't!

After tossing around a few different options for a new couch, my husband and I decided to purchase an Article Sven sofa in December of 2016. When we first bought it, we loved the look of it and were happy with it. The down filling and soft leather made for a very comfortable fabric sofa. After having this couch for about a year though, I started noticing how quickly it was losing shape. The seat cushion started hanging over the edge, the leather piping had become crooked and pinched along the armrests, down feathers frequently came out of the seams, but most disappointingly, the back cushions had slouched into a flat pile of worn leather. Down filled cushions will understandably need fluffing, but the issues with these flat cushions go so far beyond a normal flattened cushion. It's gotten to the point where the back frame has become worn where the cushion has failed to sit upright and it looks ragged. I've meticulously cared for the couch according to Article's care guide; vacuuming weekly, cleaning with a damp cloth, and using Otterwax regularly on top of fluffing and trying to whip the cushions back in shape. Needless to say that in the 2 years since spending almost $2000 on this sofa, I'm really disappointed with my purchase. I feel like I got a defective sofa because in photos that I've seen online or on social media of the couch, it has firm, stuffed cushions and the seat doesn't hang over the edge like mine does. Has anyone else had issues with their Sven? What can I do?!

Fast-forward to July 2020, when I signed a new lease with an August 1 move-in date. After landing a new job and immediately being thrust into a country-wide quarantine, I finally returned to New York City, feeling proud to be in a position that allowed me to upgrade from my previous terrible, small apartment. My newer space would be bigger and brighter than my previous cramped, flex-walled dungeon. I couldn't wait to move in—and, of course, to decorate.

As a Fashion & Lifestyle Editor, I'm constantly on Instagram looking at what people are wearing, how they're decorating their spaces, etc. A large part of my job is seeking out inspo and seeing what's trending, and as I focused my sights on all things home decor, I kept seeing the same couch popping up again and again: Article's Sven Charme Tan 72″ Sofa. There it was, featured in a sponsored post by an influencer I sometimes sit with during Fashion Week. Then again, with an LA-based model lounging effortlessly atop it. I started to see it everywhere.

Our mission at STYLECASTER is to bring style to the people, and we only feature products we think you'll love as much as we do. Please note that if you purchase something by clicking on a link within this story, we may receive a small commission of the sale.

I scrolled and scrolled, but I couldn't escape this couch. I knew deep down that it was time for me to ditch my foul freebie couch and give my new apartment the upgrade it deserved, but I couldn't help but wonder if the Sven Sofa was too good to be true. I mean, everything looks better on Instagram, right? Was it really an incredible couch, or just the most convenient sponsorship a gal could get?

I reached out to Article, totally transparent about my suspicions, and let them know I wanted to review the leather sofa and see if it was actually worth all the hype. They agreed with some majorly confident energy, which implied that they already knew damn well how good their product was, and weren't worried about the risk of a potentially-negative review. After going back and forth (and back and forth, and back and forth…) about whether to get the Sven in leather or Grass Green Velvet, I finally selected the Charme Tan Leather, convinced it was the appropriate Big Girl Choice for my Big Girl Apartment.

I admit, I was nervous about receiving a couch in the middle of a pandemic, but Article's Contactless Delivery was a breeze. Assembly went without a hitch, and before I knew it, a big, beautiful leather couch took up an entire wall of my new apartment. My apartment. My couch. As someone who had only ever had hand-me-down or found furniture in the past, I was over the moon.

And now, my honest review of the quality. I don't want to be a suck-up, but wow. I was genuinely convinced this would be one of those ~ridiculously gorgeous, but not actually all that fabric sectional sofa, and I was dead wrong. It's comfy AF, and given that I'm currently working from home, I sit on it basically all day, every day. There's just the right amount of give when you sit that allows a cushy feel, but the second you stand up, the couch resumes its aesthetically-pleasing, structured shape.

Another great thing? I had feared a leather couch because I didn't want to scratch or stain it, but the Charme Tan Leather comes with a slightly lived-in look, so it's not one of those too-perfect-to-sit-on situations. I'm careful, of course, but I don't feel like enjoying a glass of wine or sitting with shoes on are majorly risky moves. The leather looks and feels durable, and I appreciate that it can handle some wear and tear.

I know it can be scary to splurge on a large piece of furniture, especially for the first time, but I'd definitely recommend the fabric corner sofa to both home-owners and apartment renters. Having such a large, beautiful piece really pulls my home together, and it's something I know I can take with me wherever I live next. I'm glad I didn't end up buying a cheaper, low-quality couch for a quarter of the price that I'd eventually replace.

Plus, I finally understand why I kept seeing this couch all over my Instagram feed: it's so photogenic. I use it as a backdrop for just about all of my flatlays, and I've taken many a self-timer photoshoot posing on it. No shame!

Print this item

  Guide to Essential Oil Diffusers
Posted by: llkktth178 - 11-20-2022, 08:48 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Guide to Essential Oil Diffusers

Essential Oil Diffusion is the process of dispersing essential oils so that their aroma fills a room or an area with the natural fragrance. From the simple to the elaborate, many different methods exist for diffusing essential oils into a room. Three easy aromatherapy diffusion methods exist which can be done with things you probably already have in your household. In addition, there are numerous bluetooth diffuser and diffusing devices available for purchase. This article will detail the different types of devices and methods that may be used.

The descriptions below are generalities about the different aromatherapy diffusers and other essential oil diffusion products that are available. Always check the specifications, requirements and safety comments supplied with the particular product you are interested to confirm that it is suitable for your needs and expectations.

Ultrasonic diffusers use water and ultrasonic waves to diffuse essential oils into the room. They come in different sizes, and some feature colored lights.

Ultrasonic Essential Oil Diffuser Benefits:

Various types of ultrasonic aromatherapy diffusers are available, allowing consumers to choose from a wide range of sizes and options. Of non-passive style wifi aroma diffuser, ultrasonic diffusers tend to be amongst the most affordable of aromatherapy diffuser types, and they are becoming widely available. While diffusing essential oils into a given space, they also can humidify the room.


Despite the advantages, ultrasonic diffusers can fail more quickly or be more problematic. Generally speaking, I tend to hear more complaints from users of ultrasonic diffusers than for other aromatherapy diffuser types. It is important to always follow the usage instructions for the ultrasonic model diffuser that you purchase.

An atomizing diffuser (also known as a nebulizer) is a device that takes essential oils and breaks them into separate molecules before dispersing the smaller molecules into the room. It is said that these smaller molecules can be more readily absorbed by the lungs and thus create greater therapeutic value than by use of other diffusion methods.

A nebulizer is a small device that consists of two main parts: the plastic base that contains the motor/pump and a very unusual, clear blown-glass piece that holds and "nebulizes" the oils. Instead of the use of the unusual glass piece, some atomizing diffuser use a special bottle that looks like a Boston round bottle.

The size of the pump that accompanies the atomizing diffuser makes a big difference in the speed in which the essential oil is nebulized and in the amount of room/area coverage that the nebulizer can accommodate.

Essential Oil Nebulizer Benefits:

For therapeutic use, an atomizing diffuser/nebulizer should be considered. It is said that nebulizers can supply greater therapeutic benefit than the use of other aromatherapy diffusers because they break the oils down into smaller molecules.


Compared to other methods, cleaning the atomizing diffuser/nebulizer, especially after using thicker essential oils can be time consuming. Depending on the style of the light wood grain aroma diffuser, thick oils such as Sandalwood and Patchouli usually cannot be used (unless first well blended with much thinner oils) as they can clog certain model diffusers.

Fan diffusers come in a variety of sizes, shapes and styles. Essentially, a fan diffuser uses a fan to gently circulate air across the essential oils, allowing them to evaporate into the air more actively than with passive aromatherapy diffusion. To use a fan diffuser, essential oils are usually placed onto a disposable absorbent pad or into a tray. The pad or tray is placed into the aromatherapy diffusion unit and then powered on. The fan then blows air across this pad or tray and carries the aroma throughout the room. Since fan diffusers come in a variety of sizes, some fan diffusers will only diffuse a small room whereas others can diffuse very large areas.

Fan Style Essential Oil DIffuser Benefits:

Fan style aromatherapy diffusers are available in a wide variety of brands and styles. Depending on the brand and model, fan diffusers can fragrance a large area. Fan diffusers are generally easy to use. Some fan diffusers are powered by both electricity and batteries, making them quite portable.


Some fan diffusers, depending on the brand and model, require the purchase of replacement absorbent pads. Some fan diffusers are noisy.

Heat diffusers use heat to gently heat the oil and disperse the aroma into a room.

Fan Style Essential Oil Diffuser Benefits:

Electric heat diffusers may fragrance larger areas, depending on the brand and style. They can also help to more efficiently disperse the aromas of thicker oils such as Sandalwood and Patchouli.


Some individuals have trouble with clean up after using thicker essential oils. However, clean up can be much easier in this type of deep wood grain aroma diffuser than in nebulizers and other aromatherapy diffusers. Usually, alcohol can help to dissolve stubborn, stuck-on essential oil residue.

A candle diffuser is a diffuser that utilizes a tea light or other candle to gently heat the essential oil to promote diffusion into a room. A candle diffuser is usually ceramic or metal. The diffuser has an opening or space for a candle and a little bowl or tray for storing a tiny quantity of essential oil. Candle diffusers come in many shapes and colors from the modest functional piece to those that act both as a work of art and as a candle diffuser.

Candle Diffuser Benefits:

Candle diffusers are usually less pricey than nebulizing diffusers, depending on the style and design. Candle diffusers do not require electricity or batteries.


One needs to be as careful with using a candle diffuser as with using candles in general. Also, one must be sure to keep replacement candles on hand.

Terracotta clay and sandstone diffusers go by many names and come in an array of attractive shapes and sizes. Some terracotta diffusers resemble tiny clay pots that accept a small quantity of essential oil. Usually a cork is the method by which the opening is closed. The oils permeate through the pot and then diffuse out into the room. The intensity of the aroma depends on how much essential oil is added to the clay pot or other shaped diffuser. Sandstone is quite porous and is another lovely way to passively diffuse essential oils.

Terracotta and Sandstone Essential Oil Diffuser Benefits:

Clay pot diffusers are very inexpensive, easy to use, and do not require electricity or batteries.


The aroma is strongest shortly after adding essential oil to the clay pot and then dissipates as time passes. As such, it's hard to keep the same level of aroma in the room.

Lamp rings are typically made out of terracotta or brass. They are shaped like a ring and set directly onto a standard light bulb. They have a grooved lip that goes all the way around them. This lip holds the essential oil. The heat from a light bulb heats the essential oil in the lamp ring, and the oil is then gently diffused into the room.

Lamp Ring Aromatherapy Diffuser Benefits:

Lamp Rings are usually inexpensive.


If any essential oil gets onto the light bulb, the light bulb could break. They won't work with odd sized bulbs or with bulbs that are situated at odd angles. Lamp rings probably cannot be used with high efficiency bulbs.

Given all we've all been through since the start of a little-known global pandemic, essential logo custom aroma diffuser have become increasingly, well, essential for anyone struggling to wind down. The way they work is actually pretty straightforward (and not all that dissimilar to scented candles and reed diffusers). Drawing on the principles of aromatherapy, the essential oils stimulate the body's reaction to scent, something that has been shown to trigger different emotional and physical responses, helping to create a calming and sleep-inducing environment. 

Whether you want to use essential oil diffusers for sleep, anxiety or even just to imbue your living room with a light, homely fragrance, these diffusers will keep you calm and look good doing it. From ultrasonic diffusers to ones with light options and mist modes, plus the smarts of automatic shut-offs and timer settings and diffusers with the gusto to scent large rooms, we've shone a spotlight on some of the best-selling aromatherapy diffusers you can buy right now, with a bit of information to guide your search. There's a reason they keep selling out…

How do essential oil diffusers help you relax?

The basic principle is actually quite simple: different oils reportedly stimulate different responses in our hypothalamus gland, which then triggers the production of hormones. According to essential oil brand Neom, the hormones then produce different responses within the body as chemical messengers are sent to specific cells, leading to better sleep, less stress, more energy or a mood boost, depending on the oil. Scent can also be linked to our memories, stimulating positive responses in our bodies and helping to relax us in the evenings.

What are the benefits of aromatherapy and essential oil diffusers? And are oil diffusers worth it?

Essential oils may be beneficial for reducing anxiety, Dr Chris George explains: "Some small studies support the use of lavender essential oils for a reduction in stress and anxiety. One study, in particular, used lavender oil preparation Silexan in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder and compared this to benzodiazepine medication [a commonly prescribed drug for anxiety]. What they found is that the lavender preparation had comparable positive effects on sleep as traditional medication. However, the huge advantage is that the lavender oil did not produce many of the unwanted side effects associated with the medications.

"Currently in the UK essential oils are not prescribed by NHS doctors. These preparations are considered as part of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which falls outside of mainstream healthcare," explains Dr George. "However, this is not to say that there is not a role for essential oils to go alongside everyday medicine."

What are essential oils?

Derived from roots, seeds, flowers, bark and other natural plant products, essential oils are concentrated compounds that are connected to a plant's scent, a crucial part of pollination. Far from a recent discovery or wellness trend, the oils have been used for centuries by ancient societies who cited their benefits in healthcare, religious ceremonies, beauty treatments and skincare, oral hygiene and food preparation. 

Which essential oils can you diffuse to help you sleep?

Lavender oil is one of the most commonly used oils to help with sleep disorders. Tisserand aromatherapist Jo Kellett recommends starting with lavender oil and geranium, while the head aromatherapist for Neal's Yard Remedies recommends frankincense to help slow the breath and calm the mind, before moving on to neroli or camomile. 

As far as home fragrances are concerned, The White Company can do no wrong. Whether you pair it with one of the brand's bestselling home fragrances or not, this electronic diffuser always manages to dispense exactly the right amount of fragrance in a matter of minutes, meaning you can spend more time relaxing than fiddling with different settings. And with a range of timer settings, you can turn it on before you go to bed and trust in the power of an auto shut-off.

Oliver Bonas' Ceramic Aroma Diffuser is almost always sold out and for good reason. Available in three colours, the ridged design and ceramic cover fit nicely with minimalist home aesthetics, while the colour light settings can set a relaxing mood of an evening. With four different time settings, you can use this overnight and late in the evening to fill your bedroom with a calming mist of fragrance. 

Print this item

  Where Is Stainless Steel Pipe Used?
Posted by: llkktth178 - 11-20-2022, 08:47 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Where Is Stainless Steel Pipe Used?

Desculpe, este conteúdo só está disponível em Inglês Americano. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

With so many different products like seamless pipes, welded pipes and flanges it might be overwhelming trying to pick which seamless steel pipe to use for your business applications, or even what they can be used for in the first place. There are many different properties of each pipe that give it a unique use in its respective industries, and if you're going to master the different types of piping materials and what they're used for, it's important that you learn the different types, what they can be used for and how they can be applied to various industries.

To give you a hand, we've put together a simple article that details most of the regular uses for ERW steel pipe, why it's used and how it could be applied to a generic industrial company.

Types of Stainless Steel Pipe

First, let's dive into the many different types of stainless steel pipe so that we can judge which types to use for each different scenario.

Seamless Pipe

A seamless pipe is a pipe that does not contain any seams or weld joints. It's capable of standing up to intense levels of pressure and also temperatures thanks to the metal itself. It's used in a wide variety of different oil and gas applications, but they are also used in mechanical and engineering industries too. This makes seamless pipes rather versatile and they are always inspected with high levels of precision to ensure the quality of the material.

Welded Pipe

Welded pipes can be used in virtually every industry thanks to its flexibility. However, they fare better in corrosion resistance as opposed to withstanding pressure. Because of the materials used and the lightweight nature of welded pipes, they're far more cost-effective than most other piping methods and offer the best value for your money.


Pipe flanges are another important part of your overall piping setup. These come in many forms such as slip-ons, blinds, lap joints, threaded and semis. These are made from durable and sturdy materials to ensure their reliability and high-quality products are always used when creating pipe flanges.

Spectacle Blinds

For permanent or long-term solutions that allow for isolation of piping sections, spectacle blinds, spades and spacers are used for convenience. If a piece of machinery or piping section needs to be inspected, then spectacle blinds are used so that you can isolate a certain part of the piping in order to maintain a larger system. Since this is an incredibly important role that is crucial to your safety, it's recommended to rigorously test the reliability of your spectacle blinds if you want to remain safe. Given that each use case is different, it's recommended that you speak with a professional first before investing a lot of money into spectacle blinds.

Types of Industry where LSAW steel pipe is Used

Now we've taken a look at the different types of steel pipe on offer, let's look at the industries they are used in.

Oil and Gas

Technology plays a massively important role in the oil and gas industries. The need for corrosion-resistant piping has increased over the past couple of years as the depths we explore for oil deepens and more pressure is being placed on the duplex and super duplex stainless steel pipes we use. These harsh environments can be incredibly corrosive and if the damage is left unchecked, the pipes would easily burst and become unusable for deeper depths. This is why it's important to have sturdy pipes in the oil and gas industry and how it plays such a huge role in the success of this industry.

Nuclear Power

Obtaining usable energy from atomic nuclei is no easy task. All of the nuclear reactors we use today heat water to produce steam which is then used to spin turbines that provide us with energy and most of them are placed near the coast due to the cooling requirements. As such, much of the water being pumped in to cool down these reactors is from the sea, and it needs to be resistant to the corrosive nature of seawater. SSAW steel pipe is more than qualified to defend against corrosion from seawater, hence its importance in the nuclear power industry.


LNG (liquefied natural gas) is gas that has been temporarily converted into a liquid form for the sake of transportation. Its volume is greatly reduced to make it easier and cheaper to transport. In some cases, transporting natural gas via pipelines isn't possible or cheap enough to be worth the cost, which is why it's instead transported via a liquid form in cryogenic sea vessels and road tankers. As such, it's important to have the right piping that provides safe and economical LNG transport to deliver natural gas to parts of the country or world that are difficult to reach.


Desalination is the removal of salt and other minerals from a source of water. This is done to convert water into fresh water that is fit for humans to use or possibly irrigation. In most cases, salt is created as a by-product and desalination are used on many submarines and ships. Today, desalination is typically spoken about when attempting to bring fresh potable water to regions of the world where it is difficult. Saltwater and metals generally don't mix very well, hence the importance of getting piping in the desalination industry that is able to withstand the natural corrosive properties of salt water.

Mining and Minerals

Mining is the process of extracting materials from the earth. The materials covered are usually in the form of metals both common and precious and it's something that has been done for thousands of years to acquire beneficial resources. The mining industry is one where stainless steel has made it easier and more profitable to take on larger operations. Whether it's used in the actual mines itself where workers and machines dig at the earth, or in the bunk beds and mess halls where staff sleep, it's used in a variety of different applications to provide safety and reliability.

There's no voodoo when it comes to welding stainless steel tube and pipe – proper selection of filler metals, joint preparation, cleanliness and welding processes help ensure that the final product meets the designated quality standards and retains its intended corrosion resistant qualities. There are, however, evolutions to well-established processes and techniques that allow pipe fabricators to increase productivity without sacrificing the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel. 

This article will cover the basics of welding stainless steel tube and pipe for applications ranging from high purity food and beverage, pharmaceutical and petrochemical pipe to oil and gas applications. Within those basics, we will present best practices and new wrinkles on established methods that may help drive productivity in your shop while improving or maintaining the desired corrosion resistance.  

As a note: critical applications where processes are certified should not be altered without going through appropriate certification processes. Each process detailed in this article has been certified in critical applications and is meant to spur ideas as to how to move your own welding practices forward. 

Filler Metal Selection Critical in Controlling Carbon Levels

Selecting filler metal for pipe fittings is about enhancing the properties of the weld and meeting the requirements of the application. Filler metals with an "L" designation, such as ER308L, provide a lower maximum carbon content, which can help retain corrosion resistance in low carbon stainless alloys. As an example: if you weld a 304L base metal with a standard 308 filler metal, you'll actually raise the carbon content of that joint and increase the chance of corrosion. In high purity applications – food, beverage, pharmaceutical – that low carbon content is critical for maintaining corrosion resistance. Conversely, a filler metal with an "H" designation provides higher carbon content for applications requiring greater strength, particularly at high temperatures. Filler metals with higher silicon levels, such as ER309LSi, increase weld puddle fluidity, improve tie-ins and increase travel speeds for greater productivity. The 309 series filler metals are also particularly adept at joining dissimilar stainless steels and in overlay applications.      

When welding stainless steels, it's also important to select a filler metal with low trace (or "tramp") elements. These are residual elements in the raw materials used to make filler metals. They include tin, antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and sulfur, and can have strong effects on corrosion resistance.

Controlling Sensitization with Filler Metals, Interpass Temperature Control      

Sensitization is the primary cause of the loss of corrosion resistance and is affected by the chemistry of the base material and filler metal, as well as the temperatures at which the weld cools. Chromium oxide is the "stainless" layer of stainless steel. If you raise the carbon levels in the weld and neighboring heat affected zone, it forms chromium carbides, which tie up the chromium, preventing the formation of chromium oxide. This in turn allows the steel to corrode or it will not have the intended corrosion resistance.      

There are three primary ways to combat sensitization: the first is to use a low carbon base and filler metal to reduce or eliminate carbon in the welding application. This method, however, is not always practical as carbon is a vital alloying ingredient in some applications.      

The second is to minimize the time the weld and heat affected zone spend at temperatures conducive to sensitization. That range will vary depending on whom you ask, but a general consensus puts that range between 500- and 800-degrees Celsius. The shorter the time spent in that temperature zone, the less damage that accrues from the heat of welding. As such, it is important to adhere to maximum interpass temperatures identified in welding procedures. The goal in multi-pass applications should be to use as few passes as possible and weld at the lowest heat input possible to achieve faster cooling.      

The third is to use filler metals with special alloying ingredients to prevent the formation of chromium carbides. For instance, titanium and niobium can be alloyed into the filler metal and help prevent reactions between chromium and carbon. These elements also have strong effects on strength and toughness, limiting the applications in which they are useful. They also do not provide any benefit to the areas farthest away from the weld in the heat affected zone. 

Shielding Gas Critical in Retaining Corrosion Resistance     

Welding stainless steel tube and pipe traditionally requires a back purge of argon. In non-critical applications, where cost is a driving factor, nitrogen can also be used as a back purge but it may lead to the formation of some nitride compounds in the weld root, which sacrifices some corrosion resistance. This can be an acceptable trade-off in applications such as stainless steel piping for large compressed air systems and hydraulic fluid systems where water is not normally present inside the pipes and the risk of corrosion from the inside is low. 

Straight argon is recommended for gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) of stainless steel tube and pipe. Shielding gas selection for wire processes is more complicated. 

Traditionally, MIG welding has relied on mixtures of argon and carbon dioxide, argon and oxygen, and 3 gas mixtures based on helium, argon and carbon dioxide. These mixes usually contain mostly argon or helium, with carbon dioxide comprising less than 5 percent of the total gas mix. That is because the carbon dioxide can decompose in the arc and contribute carbon to the weld pool, creating a sensitized weld that is vulnerable to corrosion. Pure argon isn't used with the MIG processes because it doesn't easily support a stable welding arc. Other trace constituents like carbon dioxide and oxygen can serve this role. Argon and oxygen gas mixes can only be used to weld in the flat position because the oxygen makes for a very fluid molten weld puddle. Argon/carbon dioxide in combination with Pulsed MIG can be used to weld in all positions, as can the Tri-Mix shielding gas mixtures. 

Flux-cored wires for welding stainless steel are designed to run on traditional 75/25 percent argon/carbon dioxide mixes. The flux ingredients prevent the carbon contributed by the shielding gas from contaminating the weld and the fluxing action of the slag covering scavenges the excess carbon and keeps it from entering the weld deposit.   304 stainless steel can be successfully welded using the Regulated Metal Deposition (RMD?) process without a back purge. This is not true for duplex stainless steels. These must be purged with an inert gas such as argon.  

Weld Preparation and the Importance of Fit-Up

A discussion on welding stainless steel tube and pipe is not complete without a discussion on joint preparation. The normal trappings of welding stainless steel apply: use dedicated brushes, files and grinders that never touch carbon steel or aluminum. Cleanliness is critical. Even trace elements of foreign materials incorporated into the weld joint can cause flaws and lead to reduced corrosion resistance and strength. Because stainless steel is so sensitive to heat input to maintain its properties – both in shape and corrosion resistance – the way the pipe is cut and beveled can also have a detrimental effect on the weld. Any gap or lack of fit-up requires the welder to add more filler metal and can slow the welding process down, leading to buildup of heat in the affected area. You want as close to perfect fit-up as possible, especially on sanitary and high-purity tubing. 

The problem of corrosion of steel pipes in hot water supply systems is very relevant in Russia. In a number of cases, the accelerated corrosion of pipelines and fittings installed in hot water supply networks is observed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of corrosion of steel zinc-coated and non-galvanized pipes in hot water supply systems, to analyze the causes of corrosion and to develop methods for identifying active corrosion processes occurring in water supply systems. According to literature review the microstructure and composition of the zinc coating and the methods of its application are studied. A SEM/EDS study of the structure and elemental composition of inner zinc coating on new and used steel galvanized pipes is conducted. This study shows the nonuniform distribution of zinc layer which can lead to a rapid corrosion of both the zinc layer and the metal substrate and the development of pitting corrosion. A structure and composition of corrosion sediments formed on the inner surface of pipes was studied. The different causes and factors of steel corrosion in hot water are considered and discussed. A method of corrosion identification of galvanized pipes and heat exchange equipment based on the determination of corrosion products, in particular zinc and copper, was proposed.

Print this item