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Alumina (Aluminium Oxide)...
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Automotive Connectors Mee...
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Welded Bar Grating
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Everything You Need To Kn...
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What is important when bu...
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  Alumina (Aluminium Oxide) - The Different Types of Commercially Available Grades
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Alumina (Aluminium Oxide) - The Different Types of Commercially Available Grades

Very large tonnages are also used in the manufacture of monolithic and brick refractories. It is also mixed with other materials such as flake graphite for other, more difficult applications are envisaged, such as pouring spouts and sliding gate valves.


Key Properties


Aluminium Oxides key properties are shown below.




High compression strength




High hardness




Resistant to abrasion




Resistant to chemical attack by a wide range of chemicals even at elevated temperatures




High thermal conductivity




Resistant to thermal shock




Annual Production


Annual production of aluminum oxide is 45 million tonnes. 90% of this is used in the manufacture of aluminium metal by electrolysis.


Where Does Alumina Come From?


Most of the aluminium oxide produced commercially is obtained by the calcination of aluminium hydroxide (frequently termed alumina trihydrate or ATH). The aluminium hydroxide is virtually all made by the Bayer Process. This involves the digestion of bauxite in caustic soda and the subsequent precipitation of aluminium hydroxide by the addition of fine seed crystals of aluminium hydroxide.


Phases


Aluminium oxide exists in many forms, α, χ, η, δ, κ, θ, γ, ρ; these arise during the heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide or aluminium oxy hydroxide. The most thermodynamically stable form is α-aluminium oxide.


Commercial Grades


Low Soda


Many applications, particularly in the electrical/electronic areas, require a low level of soda to be present in the aluminum oxide. A low soda alumina is generally defined as with a soda content of <0.1% by weight. This can be manufactured by many different routes including acid washing, chlorine addition, boron addition, and utilisation of soda adsorbing compounds.


Fused


White Fused Alumina is made in electric arc furnaces by passing a current between vertical carbon electrodes. The heat generated melts the alumina. The furnace consists of a water cooled steel shell and 3-20 tonne batches of material are fused at any one time. The fused alumina has a high density, low porosity, low permeability and high refractoriness. As a result of these characteristics, it is used in the manufacture of abrasives and refractories.


The only compound of silicon and carbon is Silicon Carbide (SiC), or carborundum. SiC does occur naturally as the mineral moissanite, but this is extremely rare. However, it has been mass produced in powder form for use as an abrasive since 1893. As an abrasive, it has been used for over one hundred years in grinding wheels and many other abrasive applications.


With today's technology, high-quality technical grade ceramics have been developed with SiC which exhibit very advantageous mechanical properties such as:




Exceptional hardness




High strength




Low density




High elastic modulus


High thermal shock resistance

Superior chemical inertness




High thermal conductivity




Low thermal expansion




These high strength and very durable ceramics are widely used in applications such as automotive brakes and clutches along with ceramic plates embedded in bulletproof vests. Silicon carbide is also used in semiconductor electronic devices operating at high temperatures and/or high voltages such as flame igniters, resistance heating, and harsh environment electronic components.


Automotive uses of SiC


One of the primary uses of Black Silicon Carbide is high performance &quot;ceramic&quot; brake discs. The silicon combines with the graphite in the composite to become carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC). These brake discs are used on some sports cars, supercars, and other performance vehicles.


Another automotive use of SiC is as an oil additive. In this application, SiC reduces friction, emissions, and harmonics.


Magnesium is a mineral that's needed for many bodily processes, including blood sugar regulation, nerve function, energy production, and DNA synthesis.


It's found in a number of foods but can also be taken as a dietary supplement. These supplements contain different forms of magnesium, including magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate, and magnesium oxide.


Magnesium oxide is one of the most common forms sold in supplement form, either as a stand-alone supplement or in multinutrient products.


What is magnesium oxide?


Magnesium Oxide is an inorganic salt of magnesium formed with ions of magnesium and oxygen.


It's one of many forms of magnesium available for purchase in supplement form. It's added to dietary supplements as well as over-the-counter medications used to treat constipation, indigestion, and headaches.


Compared with other forms of magnesium, it may be less effective at raising blood magnesium levels.


How does it compare with other forms of magnesium?


Magnesium oxide and other inorganic salts of magnesium like magnesium carbonate are high in elemental magnesium, which is the total amount of magnesium in a supplement.


However, they have a low solubility rate, making them less bioavailable than other forms of the mineral. So, even though magnesium oxide supplements provide a good amount of magnesium, it's not the most available form for your body to utilize.


A 2019 study confirmed this by testing 15 magnesium supplements and finding that a supplement containing only magnesium oxide had the lowest bioavailability.


Meanwhile, a supplement with both inorganic and organic magnesium salts — magnesium oxide and magnesium glycerophosphate, respectively — had the highest bioavailability.


Because of its low absorption rate in your intestines, magnesium oxide may lead to digestive effects like diarrhea. In fact, its strong laxative effects are why it's commonly used to treat constipation.

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  Automotive Connectors Meet New Challenges as Vehicle Technologies Improve
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Automotive Connectors Meet New Challenges as Vehicle Technologies Improve

Connectors used in automotive applications enable everything from stereo systems to drivetrains. As these systems become more connected, more automated, and more energy-efficient, they require Automotive Connectors that can deliver high-speed connectivity in rugged, lightweight, and easy-to-install designs.


Harsh-environment connectivity has extended to various mobility applications including passenger and racing vehicles. This brings a host of infotainment, safety, navigation, and connectivity enhancements to the transportation experience.


This next-generation connectivity in automotive applications requires exponentially more bandwidth than ever before. Two of the communications standards automotive applications currently rely on to transmit audio, video, voice, and data signals are the Media-Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) and Ethernet protocols. Although Ethernet allows for higher speed transmission, standard RJ45 plugs were developed for more traditional, in-office Ethernet applications and, as such, aren't designed to resist vibration, which can cause the thin layers of gold plating to rub off the contacts and result in equipment failures. For this reason, many ECU Connector manufacturers have adapted standard Ethernet connectors to meet the requirements of harsher environmental conditions and now offer electrically and mechanically ruggedized Cat 5 and Cat 6 solutions that provide high-reliability, high-speed transmission in addition to effective protection against hazards including liquid and particulate ingress, electromagnetic and radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI), extreme temperatures, shock, and vibration.


Passenger safety features are no longer an exclusive technology just for luxury models. Today, they are more and more common, all the way down to compact and subcompact vehicles. All mobility applications rely on dependability. As the need for high-performance vehicles increases, the number of built-in components simultaneously increases. The result is limited mounting and wiring space, which is pushing 1 Pin Connector manufacturers to develop smaller and smaller connectors.


People who require wiring solution seeks help from Wire Harness suppliers and other professionals that is within the field of expertise. It will be beneficial to know what types of wire to purchase. One may come across a technician referring to a wire harness as a cable assembly and vice versa. While both have similarities, there are distinct differences between the two. This article is here to illustrate the differences.


Understanding the Real Deal


Both Automotive Fuel Injector Wire Harnesses and cable assemblies provide power in many electrical devices. They have common attributes and uses, the reason why these two terms are often interchangeably used. However, as aforementioned, they have differences. And it is crucial to indicate first the difference between "wire" and "cable" since both of these terms are interchangeably used as well.


Basically, a wire is a strand of material that conducts electricity, such as copper or aluminum. Unlike a cable that is a composition of two or more wires that run together. These wires are often braided or bonded together; that is why cables look like a bunch of intertwined wires.


Now, we can further define a wire harness as merely a grouping of individual sheathed wires or distinct cables wrapped separately in a dedicated sheath. Whereas a cable assembly features a group of wires or cables protected by an insulating cover. This cover can be from various materials like shrink-wrapped thermoplastic, vinyl, or thermoplastic rubber. The individually covered wires or cable functions separately, and at their ends, each feeds through one coupler or connector.


The main benefit of crimping is that it eliminates the need for soldering wire, therefore reducing installation time. This reduction in time is very important in today's market where time is of the essence and fewer technicians are being asked to maintain more and more equipment. In addition, solder joints are brittle and are prone to failure under continual vibration, which can be expected in harsh environments.


To be sure your crimp goes smoothly, use the Crimp Terminal manufacturer's recommended tools. You may be tempted to grab whatever tool is within arm's reach, but every manufacturer designs their terminals to be crimped with a specific set of tooling. Using the incorrect tools could cause crimps to not meet the designated specs and open you up to potential failure.


Many customers like using ratcheting crimp tools because they provide tactile feedback so you know when the terminal crimp is fully compressed. Ratcheting crimp tools also assure a proper crimp by providing a color coded, visual confirmation that you are using the correct cavity for the gauge wire you are crimping. Lastly, they don't allow you to open the crimp jaws until you've reached proper crimp height.


What is an Electromagnetic Coil?



Solenoid Valve Coil is the most important electronic control component in the solenoid valve. It is composed of copper or aluminum wire wound into a hollow form. It converts AC or DC electrical energy into linear mechanical motion to drive the solenoid valve.


This is achieved by placing a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. In the solenoid valve, the ferromagnetic core is called the valve core. When the current flows through the coil, due to the magnetic effect of the current, a magnetic field is generated in the surrounding space, thereby magnetizing the valve core into an electromagnet, and then under the electromagnetic force, the electromagnet further slide upward into the coil, thereby opening the valve port or pilot hole to realize the on-state of the solenoid valve


How Does Electromagnetic Coil Work in Hydraulic System?



In the hydraulic solenoid valve, the solenoid valve is used to control the flow of fluid. Most commonly, they are used as low-power switches that open and close pilot valves, which in turn control the main valve by applying pressure to a connected piston or diaphragm.

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  Welded Bar Grating
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Welded Bar Grating

When to use Steel vs. Fiberglass Grating (FRP)


Floor gratings can be manufactured using several different materials and various types of steel, and aluminum, also including fiberglass, Buyers must choose the material that will best perform the functions required of the grating, keeping in mind such constraints as strength, durability, corrosivity, conductivity, weight, and cost. Environmentally conscious buyers also consider the environmental impact of each material and its future recyclability.


In this article we'll compare Steel Welded Bar Grating to Fiberglass Grating to guide you in your choice as you decide on the best suited grating for your facility. While fiberglass is appropriate for certain use cases, steel is often the safer, more economical, and more environmentally friendly choice.


Choosing between Steel Welded Bar Grating and Fiberglass


Steel is stronger, more durable, and more economical than fiberglass. It is required for grating that must withstand heavy loads, such as vehicular traffic. For elevated platforms and flooring, steel is the safer choice. Slip-resistant coatings and treads can be applied to steel grating for stairways and walkways. Steel Grating can also offered in a serrated surface for more traction. Buyers who require corrosion resistance can choose stainless steel grating over carbon steel.


Steel is more environmentally friendly than fiberglass. Fiberglass is constructed from reinforced fiberglass plastic that releases VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), which, at high volumes, are harmful to human health and indoor air quality. As most fiberglass products are imported, carbon emissions are released to transport them overseas. Furthermore, while Steel Bar Grating can be recycled, fiberglass cannot. In addition, since the integrity of fiberglass products can be compromised over time as the plastic is exposed to UV radiation, the grating is difficult to reuse or repurpose.


Fiberglass is lighter than steel, electrically non-conductive, and corrosion resistant. It is often used in the food, chemical, and wastewater processing industries because it doesn't rust. Since it can withstand frequent submersion in water, fiberglass is a popular choice of grating for foot bridges, handrails, decks, and pond skimmers.


Stairs are usually just seen as a way to move between levels, not as a decorative element of their own. But stairs comprise enough interior space that they deserve to be decorated, too. You can inexpensively improve the appearance of your stairs and help them function as design elements with covers, runners, paint, or tile. The Stair Treads are the horizontal surface that your walk on when you go up or down the stairs. The stair riser is the vertical portion between the treads. Not all staircases have risers.


The ultimate way to revamp your stairs is to remove the stair treads and risers and completely replace them. But that's more work and more cost than you need to take on—especially when there is a far easier solution. Instead, install covers over the stair treads and risers. With these decorative covers, all parts of your stairs remain in place. Once installed, the stair tread and riser covers look exactly like the real thing.


Trench cover advantages


Trench Cover is a flexible, sturdy solution that can be implemented on construction sites to prevent workers from falling into ground holes.


1. Protect workers on an active site


Our trench system is designed to protect workers on active sites (such as new building constructions, refurbishments and road works). Made of reinforced plastic resin, the system is tough and will prevent workers from falling into unprotected trenches. Unlike plastic covers or boards, the trench cover is not designed to be systematically walked on, which makes it unsuitable for pedestrians, high traffic areas and unsupervised sites.


2. Easy to use


The trellis can easily be extended to cover trenches of various sizes and it attaches to one side for stability. Users can open and close it as they wish as it is light to deploy. When not needed anymore, the trench cover can be removed and stored in a safe place until it is needed again.






Grating Fasteners (also known as Grating Clips and G-Clips) are simple fasteners that allow bar grating to be attached to steel structures without the need for drilling or welding. There are many advantages to using grating fasteners. Grating fasteners are safer because they don't require dangerous welding or drilling. This is also perfect for industrial environments where drilling and welding is not allowed. In many cases there is no stoppage of work and no special permits which save real time and money.


Grating Clip grating fasteners are also very easy to install. Each connection can be made in just minutes using simple hand tools. Beyond easy of installation, and unlike traditional bar grating attachment methods, the grating fastener can be removed to allow access to areas below the grating. Whether used for temporary or permanent installations of bar grating, you'll appreciate the ability to remove the fastener.


If you have questions about our grating fasteners, consult the product pages on this site or give a call to our sales team. We can help answer questions about the usage of these products. If you are looking for a volume quote on grating fasteners, consult our quotation page. Our sales team will promptly reply with price and stocking information. If you are ready to purchase you can buy grating clips online in our easy to use checkout process.

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  Everything You Need To Know About False Eyelashes and How to Apply Them
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Everything You Need To Know About False Eyelashes and How to Apply Them

When it comes to makeup, applying false eyelashes ranks pretty high in terms of difficulty (or at the least, intimidation), right up there with winged liner and impeccable contouring. That's why we're here to demystify all of your questions surrounding the various (and plentiful) types of faux lashes on the market — which, by the way, has flooded everywhere, including drugstore aisles, Instagram, and the most luxurious beauty boutiques.


Once primarily associated with theatrical performers, glamazons, and the red carpet set, thanks to Instagram-fueled trends and a reclaimed power in the individuality of makeup (I'll rock a false lash on a Tuesday afternoon trip to the grocery store, thanks very much), the false Mink Eyelashes has become totally democratized. In fact, the rapid ascent of false lash-effect mascaras like Glossier's Lash Slick, Maybelline New York's The Falsies, and (my all-time favorite) D.J.V. Miaray Fiberwig, are proof that the look of endless, fluttery lashes aren't going out of style any time soon.


We've enlisted the pros to break down everything you need to know about finding the perfect false lash for your eye shape and desired effect. So grab your falsies and your lash glue (remember: give it a few seconds to dry until tacky before sticking them on your eyelids) and get ready to become a lash master.


Individuals


Individual Natural Mink Eyelashes are a great option if you want to give a subtle, all-over boost to the fullness and length of your natural lashes, or simply want to add definition in certain areas of the lash line. Individuals are usually available in sets of 30-60 strands of varying lengths, which makes them one of the best options for a customizable look. &quot;With individuals, you have more control and you can become your own lash artist," makeup artist and Tweezerman brow & lash ambassador Gita Bass tells Allure.


Who it's for: Anyone who's looking for a natural-looking way to add length and volume in specific areas or looking to fill in any gaps in the natural lash. "They are the most versatile [false lash type] and can create any gorgeous look from a natural, 'day' lash to a maximum intensity look," says Bass. &quot;When applied correctly, individuals can disappear into your own lashes and really keep people guessing."


Clusters


Also known as &quot;flares&quot; or &quot;accents,&quot; clusters work well if you're short on time or need a little more practice applying full strip Vegan Eyelashes, according to Bass. "The little band on a cluster makes them easier to pop on the lash line, and they don't lift on the corners like strips can." Another great thing about clusters is that they can be strategically applied to create a variety of looks. "I'll often add a few clusters on the corners to create a cat-eyed effect," says Bass.


Who it's for: If you're looking for similar results from a strip, but with the customizability of smaller, more workable pieces, then clusters are definitely for you. Apply them in a row for a full strip-like finish, or pop them just onto the outer corner of your eyes to create a wider, cat-eye effect.


How to use it: Similarly to lash strips, clusters are applied by dispensing a thin amount of lash adhesive and placing each one onto the upper lash line and layering as desired. "Once your lash is on, wiggle mascara at your root to 'marry' the false Faux Mink Eyelashes and your natural lashes together to give a seamless look," recommends makeup artist Kelsey Deenihan.


Strips


When people talk about false lashes, odds are they're most likely referring to strips, which — as their name suggests — are a horizontal band of faux wisps that are worn across the entirety of your upper lash line."Strip lashes work well as long as you find a style that suits your eye shape," Bass recommends. "Rounder eyes look great with a winged or demi lash on the outer corners, while deep-set eyes need a slightly longer lash to be visible. Hooded eyes benefit from a lash that is longer in the middle."


Who it's for: Full Synthetic Eyelashes strips are a one-step way to instantly add drama and volume to your eyes and are widely available in a variety of price points. Some feature a black band for added definition, while others may feature an "invisible" band for a more subtle effect. "I prefer to use them for a more dramatic look, or if a client has very sparse lashes and needs the help of the lash base," says Bass.


In terms of materials, synthetic fibers are commonly used in both drugstore and prestige offerings, but the upper echelon of luxury lashes may sometimes be made with natural fibers like mink or silk.


Magnetic


Relatively new to the scene, Magnetic Eyelashes are the makeup world's answer to anyone who's dealt with the struggle of applying lashes at the precise moment when glue is tacky but not completely set. (And of course, there's the removal ordeal, which if done improperly, can mean sacrificing a few of your natural lashes in the process.) Formerly a niche category in the world of false lashes, magnetic options are now going fully mainstream with popular mass brands like Kiss and Ardell making versions at price points that won't break the bank. Magnetic lashes are also becoming available in a wide variety of shapes (i.e. clusters and strips), so they can be a great option no matter what lash look you're going for.


Who it's for: If you're looking for a reusable and gentler alternative to traditional falsies, very over using lash glue, or want to add even more volume to existing lash extensions but can't get glue on them.


How to use it: For starters, forget everything you know about applying a traditional false lash. Magnetic Lashes Kit work by "sandwiching" your natural lashes in between two interlocking strips of false lashes, that stick together with the help of micromagnets. Begin by gently placing the upper strip on top of your lashes and then "locking" them into place by bringing the bottom strip underneath your lashes and letting the magnets snap them together. To remove them, gently rub the lashes with your fingers in a side-by-side motion (don't pull or tug) to let the magnets naturally come apart.

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  What is important when buying a laser cutting machine?
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

What is important when buying a laser cutting machine?

When purchasing a Sheet Fiber Laser Cutting Machine, there are a number of things to consider, this goes far beyond the purchase price or service intervals. But what exactly has to be taken into consideration? This guideline might help.


1- What are the differences between a CO2 laser and a fiber laser?


As the name suggests, the CO2 laser uses a gas mixture that is based on carbon dioxide. This mixture, which usually consists of CO2, nitrogen, and helium, is electrically excited to generate the laser beam. Solid-state lasers are available in the form of fiber or disk lasers in similar power levels to their CO2 counterparts. As with the CO2 laser, the laser-active medium gives the fiber laser its name, which in this case is a glass-like or crystalline solid in the form of a fiber or a disk. While with the CO2 laser, the laser beam is guided through a beam path using optics, the beam of the fiber laser is generated in an active fiber and guided to the machine's cutting head via a transport fiber. One of the key differences, apart from the laser medium as such, is its wavelength: With a fiber laser the laser wavelength is around 1μm and with a CO2 laser 10μm. The fiber laser's shorter wavelength results in a higher absorption rate when cutting steel, stainless steel, and aluminum. A higher absorption rate means lower heat generation in the material that is being processed, which is, of course, a positive attribute. CO2 technology is ideal for all-rounders who process a wide variety of materials and thick metal sheets. A Cover and Exchange Table Laser Cutting Machine, on the other hand, is capable of processing the thin to thick range of sheet thicknesses with materials ranging from steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, right through to non-ferrous metals (copper and brass).


2- What are the benefits of a fiber laser compared to a CO2 laser?


The advantage of the CO2 laser is its superior cutting quality in thick steel (mild steel). The fiber laser, on the other hand, offers high cutting speeds and lower operating costs per hour. Fiber lasers require nowhere near as much energy as CO2 lasers, and their electrical efficiency is up to 5 times higher. What is more, the beam path of fiber lasers is simpler. Another big bonus is the more compact footprint: A fiber laser system with 8 to 10 kW laser power requires only about one-fifth of the floor space of a CO2 laser system of comparable power. Fiber laser technology has advanced rapidly in recent years. However, it is important to consider more factors than just the laser power and cutting speeds. Success in the sheet metal processing sector is dependent on an entire array of diverse and individual factors, all of which revolve around the core question: What is the optimal workflow? Even the most high-performance machine can only be cost-effective if its potential is fully exploited.


3- What should be considered when purchasing a laser cutting machine?


The factors vary enormously. In order to be able to evaluate which machine is best suited, one must first understand the intended application and define not only its requirements, but also its limits. One should also consider potential new objectives on the horizon and other options. After all, the purchase of a Plate and Tube Fiber Cutting Machine represents a major investment, and the decision concerns not just the machine itself. The purchase has an impact on the entire manufacturing process, covering everything from manpower, service and maintenance, consumables, right through to know-how. Other factors are also involved: The fiber laser allows companies to increase the speed of a single process step. However, this may make it necessary to automate loading and unloading, since otherwise the machine will frequently be idle because its operators cannot keep up. The prime objective is clear: Reduce costs while increasing product quality and productivity. Achieving this objective with the purchase of a new system requires know-how that may not yet be available within the company. The capacity and performance of the system must correspond to the needs. If you invest a significant sum in a fiber laser cutting system in combination with complex material management solutions, you naturally expect to achieve a favorable ROI.


4- How has the laser cutting system market developed in recent years?


15 years ago, there were perhaps no more than 20 laser cutting machine OEMs, and the industry was dominated by a handful of leading suppliers. In the meantime, however, the market has opened up, and today, there are a multitude laser cutting machine manufacturers on the market. The number of suppliers of other components, such as software and CNC controls, has also increased dramatically, with the result that virtually anyone with a modicum of know-how can now produce a Large Format Fiber Laser Cutting Machine. This development has resulted in the market being flooded with cheap equipment, and this is precisely where the problem lies: Sheet metal processing companies are faced with a large number of new suppliers who have little process knowledge, do not guarantee spare parts availability, and do not offer any customer services, because their only goal is to sell at low costs in order to increase their own market share. This often results in the fact being overlooked that rather than being a plug-and-play solution, a laser cutting system only works when countless components interact flawlessly. The industry has experienced significant technological advancements over the past 25 years – and major technological rollouts are always challenging.


In comparison, the maintenance of fiber laser machines is considerably less time and cost intensive. A fiber laser has fewer parts that require maintenance, which translates into real cost and time savings. Thus, the time required for maintenance and inspection of fiber lasers is significantly reduced and usually takes just a few hours. However, both laser technologies require the service intervals to be adapted in the event of shift operation. Naturally, a laser cutting machine that is in operation 24/7 requires more frequent overhauls. This has an impact on both the maintenance costs and the downtime for servicing. At the end of the day, the choice of a laser cutting machine should be based not only on the purchase price, but also on the total cost of ownership, calculated over the machine's entire service life. Maintenance and energy costs as well as machine downtime should definitely be factored in. The energy costs, which can make up a considerable portion of the total annual expenses, are significantly lower with fiber lasers. For all these reasons, potential buyers should obtain information about the availability and supply of spare parts, so their machine can be promptly repaired in the event of a breakdown. They should also clarify whether the supplier has a service technician stationed nearby who speaks their language. When you use sophisticated, highly complex technologies, you have to reckon with hiccups. A laser cutting machine that is unable to cut because of a single damaged part is simply not an asset for the customer.


6- What is the service life of a laser cutting machine?


A Tube Fiber Laser Cutting Machine can last a long time, provided that a few points are observed: A suitable environment for the machine (air temperature and humidity), regular cleaning, and above all regular and professional maintenance are essential. These are the basic factors that ensure a long service life.


7- How much must one be prepared to invest?


There is no simple answer to this question, because it depends on so many factors. As previously mentioned, the demands you place on the laser cutting machine play a key role. This has an impact on the size and capacity of the system. The peripheral equipment is also an aspect that must be considered: For example, do the workflows require an automatic loading and unloading system? If you decide to buy a laser cutting machine, you should not only focus on the costs of the purchase itself, but also evaluate the total cost of ownership, calculated over the machine's entire service life, including maintenance costs and machine downtime.

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  Big Beauty Brands That Are Tackling the Industry's Plastic Problem
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Big Beauty Brands That Are Tackling the Industry's Plastic Problem


Since the spring of 1970, Earth Day has been celebrated worldwide to raise awareness and responsibility for the environment. And while the planet, and the living organisms that inhabit it, are being compromised by all kinds of pollution, plastic waste has steadily emerged as a sobering global crisis. According to the Plastic Soup Foundation, the production of plastic has increased every year by 8 percent and more of the polymeric material was produced over the last 10 years than during the entire 20th century. In the U.S. alone, over 60 million Cosmetic Plastic Bottle Packaging is thrown away every day.


Since launching in 2018, Seed Phytonutrients, L'Oréal's first internally incubated niche brand, has been a huge disrupter in the beauty space, from their organic, locally-sourced ingredients to their recyclable, compostable, and paper-based packaging. For the latter, the company partners with innovative recycling company TerraCycle to ensure every portion of every bottle, including the mixed materials pump dispenser, is able to be repurposed. Based out of Doylestown, Pennsylvania, they collaborate with a number of the family-run businesses, such as Barefoot Botanical, on their hair, face, and body offerings.


Last year, REN Clean Skincare caused a stir with its first-ever 100 percent recycled Plastic PET Bottles, with 20 percent of the plastic sourced directly from the ocean. Made in collaboration with Terracycle, the two companies will continue to challenge the industry status quo together, with REN pledging to go &quot;zero waste&quot; by 2021. A key component to fulfilling this goal will be offering six of their bestselling daily body care products in glass label-free bottles (designed to make them easier to clean and refill), with a single-type plastic pump for future recycling.


Chanel Inc., the maker of the world's most famous perfume, isn't about to compromise on luxury to become greener.


The fashion house behind Chanel No. 5 spent two years developing a sustainable cap for perfume bottles with Finland's Sulapac Oy, tossing out 47 prototypes before it was satisfied. The result: a biodegradable Perfume Cap made of 91% plant-based materials with a sleek black look and satiny feel.


Launched this summer, the cap will be used for all 125 milliliter (4.23 fl oz) bottles of the Les Eaux de Chanel collection of fragrances. Chanel set criteria for the material, including "the unique sound the bottle makes when the cap is put on, the grip, and the depth of the satiny matte finish on the iconic double C engraving," according to a press release.


While an incremental step in tackling global pollution, the work's real value lies in demonstrating that alternatives to fossil-based plastics can be produced at scale, Suvi Haimi, chief executive officer of Sulapac, said in an interview. Chanel owns a minority stake in the company.


Chanel has unveiled a new biobased Aluminum Perfume Cap for all the 125 ml bottles in its Les Eaux De Chanel collection, developed in partnership with Sulapac. Chanel first invested in Sulapac—a startup company that makes sustainable packaging based on a biodegradable, microplastic-free trademarked material made from FSC-certified wood chips and natural binders—in 2018. It was Sulapac's first investment from the cosmetics industry. For two years, Chanel teams worked hand-in-hand with the Finnish startup to create a cap composed of three layers, made out of 91% biobased materials obtained from renewable resources and FSC certified wood chips (by-products of industrial side-streams). In keeping with the rigorous standards of the House of Chanel, every detail was carefully thought out, says the company, including the sensory nature of the material, its resistance to fluctuations in temperature, the unique sound the bottle makes when the Zamac Perfume Cap is put on, the grip, and the depth of the satiny matte finish on the iconic double C engraving.


Finding ways to reduce plastic use and make packaging more recyclable and reusable, all the while maintaining product integrity, quality and safety, is a well-known challenge facing the packaging industry. When it comes to sectors such as food and drink or pharmaceuticals, or elements like Cosmetic Caps and Closures, the challenge becomes more difficult as packaging suddenly has a far higher burden in regards to ensuring safety. And while materials such as polypropylene are largely recyclable, there is no guarantee that they will be used in products that fit into larger recycling streams.


Like many other major plastics applications, plastics use in flexible packaging has come under deep scrutiny in recent years as sustainability concerns rise and spread globally.


Paper Packaging is often lauded as a far more environmentally friendly alternative but how do the two materials really compare? And what is the most sustainable solution?


Historically, papers have been used in flexible packaging for many applications, including confectionery, pet food and dried food. By the early-2000s, however, paper demand as a flexible packaging substrate began to decline due to competition from down-gauging and the rise of plastic alternatives.


Comparing green credentials isn't as straightforward as some would think, however.


Paper is far more biodegradable than plastic and very easily recycled. But it often ends up in landfill, where its degradation rate slows – while it takes up more space than the same weight of plastic. Additionally, paper-based flexible packaging is often laminated with plastic/aluminium or coated with resin, therefore becoming non-recyclable.

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  Top Garden Hand Tools That Every Gardener Should Have
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Top Garden Hand Tools That Every Gardener Should Have

Most backyard gardeners don't need an entire shed full of tools to tend to their vegetable gardens—a few sturdy hand tools will do the trick! This is especially true if you garden in raised beds or containers. Using a big rake on a raised bed is like using a sledgehammer to put in a push pin—there is such a thing as too much tool.


The right tools for the job will make it so you can plow through your garden to-do list more efficiently. We've tested lots of Garden Hand Tools in the Growfully gardens, and this list is out best of the best. Let's dig in!


What hand tools do I need?


There are hundreds of different kinds of garden hand tools—trowels, spades, weeders, pruners, hoes, cultivators, oh my! But a savvy gardener just has a few, high-quality tools that they use every day. If you are just starting out, here is our list of must-haves:


Trowel—AKA: a mini shovel. A Hand Trowel is a must-have hand tool for every gardener. Invest in a good one with inch markings and a sturdy handle.


Cultivator—AKA: a manual rototiller or mini-rake. Use this Hand Cultivator to mix in soil amendments, aerate the soil, rake in seeds, or rake back mulch. Many tools have a cultivator on one side, and a hoe on the other (like this one).


Hoe—A sharp hoe is a must-have for removing weeds in your beds and containers. There are at least a dozen different shapes of hand hoes, but we really like either a classic hoe, circular hoe, or Nejiri Gama hoe.


Harvest/Weeding Knife—Growing up, there was always an old knife stuck into the top of the fence post in my parents' garden, and I have one now, too! An old kitchen knife works, but you can also upgrade to a Hand Weeder and harvest knife if you want the real deal.


Scissors or Shears—A good pair of garden scissors or shears is a must-have for harvesting herbs and greens. These small pruning snips have a permanent spot in my garden harvest basket.


Hand Pruners—AKA: secateurs. A good, sharp pair of hand bypass pruners will make your life so much easier!




How do I store hand tools?


For the longest life, keep Long Handle Tools covered and out of the weather. Make sure they are clean before you put them away. On tools with exposed metal, a thin layer of mineral oil can keep them from rusting if stored in a humid environment.


How do I clean and disinfect hand tools?


Hand tools should be regularly cleaned and disinfected. This is especially true if you used your tools on a diseased plant—you can easily spread bacterial and fungal diseases among plants on your tools.


For most (non-diseased plant) purposes, a gentle wash under the garden hose to clean off dirt and debris will do the trick. Make sure the tools are completely dry before you store them—you can dry them in the sun or by using a cloth.


Use a metal file to lightly sharpen the edges of tools. Again, you don't want to grind away too much of the metal, just use it to smooth out nicks, remove burrs, and give a nice clean edge. On some Garden Cutting Tools (like hedge clippers and axes), you'll need to follow up with a sharpening stone lubricated with oil for a finer edge.


An excellent cleaning tool makes a big difference when cleaning up last year's leftover leaves from your lawn when spring arrives. You will need the best leaf grabbers for your cleaning tasks since they have the ingenuity to clean any yard or lawn. What's more, the best Leaf Grabber features oversized leaf claws to clean up a huge amount of leaves in a short time. And this makes cleaning your yard or garden faster.


You can even use your leaf grabbers as a garden grabber since these are versatile. You want to buy the best leaf grabbers from the market to unlock their full potential. However, the market is never short of it and not all of them are best for you. You will need a guide to help you narrow down your choices to the best leaf grabbers.

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  Biodegradable Plastic Bags: What You Need to Know
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Biodegradable Plastic Bags: What You Need to Know

Plastic can be a problem. It might seem strange for a company called "Plastic Place" to acknowledge such a thing, but it is absolutely true. While the invention of plastic has done a massive amount for humanity, revolutionizing everything from sanitation to health care, no technological advance comes without its price. Improperly discarded plastic is one of the most urgent problems facing the environment today. According to the U.S. Environmental Agency, only 8% of the 31 million tons of plastic waste produced each year is recycled. Much of the rest ends up as litter and pollution, clogging waterways, threatening wildlife, and releasing potentially toxic chemicals into the earth. Being so aware of this conflict is what drives our commitment to finding greener ways of dealing with trash, especially when it comes to the production and disposal of plastic bags.


When Biodegradable Garbage Bags first arrived on the scene, they were hailed as the scientific breakthrough that would cure all the problems that plastic can create. The idea of a plastic that would behave and break down just like a natural material seemed too good to be true. Was it? We took a look at the facts and found out.


What does "biodegradable" actually mean?


First it will help to define the sometimes confusing terms which are often used interchangeably when discussing biodegradable plastics.


"Regular" plastic is a synthetic material created from petrochemicals. Without getting too deep into the science, the long polymer chains in regular plastic are so resilient and resistant to breakdown that they can last for hundreds of years.


Biodegradable Clothes Bags, which are also made from petrochemicals, are manufactured differently so that they can begin to break down quickly in the presence of air and sunshine. You might see this plastic labeled as photodegradable or oxy degradable.


Bioplastic is made from organic, renewable sources, such as vegetable oils, corn, and grains.


Compostable plastic, which is usually bioplastic, doesn't just break down: as it decomposes, it will create humus, which adds valuable nutrients to the soil.


One of the first problems with "biodegradable plastic" was that in the early days there was no consensus on what qualified as biodegradable. Dubious claims abounded as companies rushed to get on the green bandwagon and made all kind of promises to consumers that were not actually true. Eventually, the Federal Trade Commission stepped in with a strict set of guidelines defining exactly what could and could not be labeled as biodegradable.


The limitations of biodegradable plastic


"Returning to nature" is a pretty poetic idea, but is that actually what happens when Biodegradable Pet Poop Bags arrive at the landfill? The problem with the FTC guidelines is that some extremely important factors are completely left out.


First of all, the "reasonably short period of time" is not defined. It could mean any amount of time from a week to several years.


Next, and most importantly, there's no discussion of the type of environment required for this breakdown to occur. The fact is that most plastic ends up in landfills. Canada's Environment and Plastics Industry Council (EPIC) estimates that even though two thirds of the plastic in a landfill could be called biodegradable, once it reaches that dry and airtight environment, it pretty much halts the biodegradation process, and the plastic just sits there along with its non-biodegradable counterparts. By design, the conditions in a landfill are extremely hostile to the biodegrading process. Nothing is actually meant to decompose there: air, moisture, and sunlight, the three factors most necessary to decomposition, are purposely kept out of landfills in order to cut down on greenhouse gas emissions. This means that even if Biodegradable Roll Draw Tape Bag did break down in this environment, the consequences would be far from rosy. As it degrades, it releases two greenhouse gasses: methane and carbon dioxide, which both contribute hugely to global warming. Many traditional petrochemical-based biodegradable plastics also leave behind toxic metals and traces which can contribute to soil and water pollution.


As if that wasn't enough, consider this: biodegradable plastic cannot be recycled with other plastics.


Biodegradable plastic is marked "7" while most other recyclable plastics are a "1" or a "2". If bioplastic is mixed in with these, it will contaminate the whole batch. You don't need to be an environmental scientist to know that's not a good outcome.


Finally, even relatively friendly bioplastics have their drawbacks: arguably, the land and resources and carbon output used to grow corn and other materials for bioplastic might be better used growing actual food. The genetically modified crops used for the production of bioplastic and the necessary chemical fertilizer and pesticides have their own consequences for the environment. On a very practical level, these Biodegradable Loop Die Cut Handle Bags are often not as strong as petrochemical-based bags, which means that they may require double-bagging. Using more plastic instead of less isn't a sustainable solution.


What biodegradable plastics can actually do for the earth


Truly compostable bags can also make a big difference. If your city offers a commercial composting facility, using these Biodegradable Mailing Bags for your food and yard waste is a great option which may encourage more composting: a pure win for the environment. For do-it-yourselfers with a backyard compost bin, some bags are also suitable for home-composting, but check the label carefully.


Why behavior is more important than biodegradable bags


Whether or not you choose to use biodegradable plastic or bioplastics, at the end of the day, making good environmental decisions often comes back to what we do, rather than what we buy. The three Rs we learned in school on Earth Day are still the most important ways we can protect the health of our planet. Reducing the amount of plastic we use and throw away whether biodegradable or otherwise, is the most impactful choice we can make. Choosing long-lasting products instead of disposable ones and composting wherever possible helps keep plastic of all kinds out of landfills. Proper recycling has a multiplying effect: you throw less away and you need less plastic bags to contain your trash. For an extra measure of eco-friendliness, you can also choose Biodegradable Vegetable and Fruits Bags, which reuse plastic that's already here. As science and technology continue to progress, the question of whether biodegradable plastic is a net win for the environment will hopefully become more clear. For now, staying educated and thoughtful about our choices is the first step.


When you are in the store, remember that there is a difference between biodegradable and oxo-biodegradable. Both affect the environment in different ways. Biodegradable products are actually environmentally safe and typically reduce the pollution. Where as oxo-biodegradable products may actually cause further pollution. There are a lot of products, which are biodegradable that can be bought at the store. These include Garbage Bags, straws, and even shoes & watches!


The difference between oxo-biodegradable and compostable is really subtle. While compostable Shopping Bags decompose completely, the oxo-biodegradable bags leave small particles behind as they decompose, and those particles can be problematic (often made from petroleum products). It's not because we don't see something that it is not polluting

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  What is Borosilicate Glass and How is it Used?
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

What is Borosilicate Glass and How is it Used?

Borosilicate Glass is a specialized form of glass that uses boric acid as a component in its fabrication. The result of the addition of the element boron is a type of glass that is very resistant to thermal shock and exhibits a much lower coefficient of thermal expansion than that of common silicate glass. In this article, a review of borosilicate glass will be presented, including its development, properties, and uses.

Development of Borosilicate Glass


Back in 1882, a German chemist named Otto Schott was interested in experimenting with ways to create glass that had the ability to withstand sudden changes in temperature or exposure to uneven temperatures without shattering. In that year, he made the discovery that ushered in the creation of the Borosilicate Glass Tube. Schott discovered that the addition of the element Boron to the glass fabrication process resulted in a heat-resistant form of glass.


Later work by chemists W.C. Taylor and Eugene Sullivan at Corning Glass refined the efforts of Otto Schott and expanded the temperature resistant properties of borosilicate glass. As a result of these innovations, customized glass fabrication grew, where there is now over a million different formulations of glass that can be customized for specific product needs by enhancing the desired physical and mechanical properties of glass.


Perhaps the most well-known application for borosilicate glass grew from further research at Corning Glass. After joining the company in 1914, physicist Jesse Littleton was given the task of testing and evaluating the physical properties of the newly created glass formulation. After his wife's ceramic casserole dish accidentally broke, she suggested that perhaps this newly developed heat resistant glass might prove to be a useful product for baking. After she tested the notion by baking a cake in a sample glass container that Littleton had brought home, a new use for Borosilicate Glass Rod was born – glass cookware. Corning Glass introduced a line of products known as Pyrex?[1], which was for many years of its manufacturing run produced using borosilicate glass.


Properties of Borosilicate Glass


Borosilicate glass is generally chemically resistant, but perhaps its most remarkable physical property is its low coefficient of thermal expansion, which explains why the glass can resist shattering under sudden rapid changes in temperature. Glass generally is a poor conductor of heat, so when you take hot glass and immerse it in cold water, the exterior of the glass cools rapidly while the interior does not. The stresses caused by the temperature differential cause the glass to shatter.


With Borosilicate Glass Solar Vacuum Tube, the addition of boric acid (H3BO3) to the formulation results in a glass that has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, which means that when the glass is heated or cooled, it does not expand or contract very much. This dimensional stability is what enables borosilicate glass to be capable of withstanding rapid and extreme temperature changes without cracking.


The chemical composition of borosilicate glass typically consists of around 81% silicon dioxide (SiO2) and 13% boron trioxide (B2O3) with lesser concentrations of sodium oxide and aluminum oxide. (Note that the concentrations of boric oxide can vary, 5-13% is typical). The element Boron is what provides the glass with its dimensional stability so that the material doesn't shrink or grow as the temperature to which it is exposed changes.


Applications of Borosilicate Glass


The initial problem that was attempting to be solved at the time that Otto Schott began experimenting with glass formulations was to create a glass that could stand up against extreme temperature exposure. For example, the glass that was used in lanterns at that time would end up shattering or cracking in rainy conditions because the cold rain on the exterior surface of the glass caused a large temperature gradient when compared with the temperature of the hot interior face.


Once borosilicate Pharmaceutical Glass became available, its applications became immediately apparent. Some of the common uses for borosilicate glass include:




Laboratory glassware




Scientific lenses and hot mirrors




Bakeware and cookware




Laboratory glassware


The high dimensional stability and ability to tolerate exposure to different temperatures at the same time make borosilicate glass a natural material choice from which to create laboratory Borosilicate Glassware, also called labware. Petri dishes, microscope slides, Borosilicate Bottle and Cups, beakers, flasks, test tubes, funnels, and measuring instruments such as graduated cylinders are all common examples. Besides the favorable thermal properties, borosilicate glass is very resistant and non-reactive to most chemicals.


Scientific lenses and hot mirrors


Borosilicate glass can be molded into high precision optical components such as lenses for use in telescopes and other precision optical devices. The low coefficient of thermal expansion for borosilicate glass means that the optical properties of the lenses will be stable over changes in temperature as the glass lens will not significantly change its dimensions. The glass is also ideal for use in hot mirrors that reflect infrared light.


Bakeware and cookware


Among its first and most common uses is in the creation of household cookware and bakeware. The thermal properties of Kitchen Glassware allow it to be transported from a hot oven to a cool countertop without fear of cracking or shattering. It is also used in products such as measuring cups and is safe for use in microwave ovens and dishwashers.

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  Chainsaws
Posted by: llkktth150 - 4 hours ago - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Chainsaws

What is a chainsaw?


The clue is in the name! A ChainSaw has two main parts: a saw blade built into a chain, wrapped around a long metal guide bar, and a small, one-cylinder gasoline (petrol) engine (sometimes an electric motor powered by a cord or battery pack). The chain is a bit like a bicycle chain, running around sprockets (gear wheels designed to turn a chain) only with about 30 or so sharp teeth (made from a hardened steel alloy) mounted around it at intervals. Inside the engine, as the piston moves in and out of the cylinder, it pushes a connecting rod that turns a crankshaft. The crankshaft turns gears that are connected (through a centrifugal clutch, explained below) to one of the sprockets on which the chain is mounted—and the chain spins around.


What happens inside a chainsaw?


Yes, crudely speaking, that's what Chainsaw Cylinder Piston Kits do: in scientific terms, it converts the chemical energy locked in gasoline into mechanical energy you can use to &quot;do work,&quot; turning a tree into logs, sawdust, noise, and heat. Here's a very simplified explanation:




The fuel you put in a chainsaw's gas tank contains, in chemical form, all the energy you'll consume cutting down and chopping up logs. To keep it nice and light, a typical chainsaw tank holds just 0.5 liters (1.1 US liquid pints) of gas (a car's gas tank holds maybe 45–55 liters or 12–15 US liquid gallons, which is roughly 100 times more).




The fuel feeds through a carburetor to mix it with air.




The air-fuel mixture passes into a cylinder, which works much like the ones in a car engine but with only a simple push-pull (two-stroke) action instead of the more complex (four-stroke) cycle used in a car. Inside the cylinder, the air-fuel mix is ignited by a spark (sparking) plug, burns, releases its energy, and pushes a piston back and forth. The piston in a Chainsaw Baffles engine has a bore (diameter) of about 45mm (1.75 in) and a stroke (traveling distance) of about 33mm (1.3 inches)—so it's less than half the size of a typical car engine piston and moves only half as far.




A connecting rod and crank convert the back and forth motion of the piston to rotary motion.




A drive shaft takes power to the centrifugal clutch.




A chainsaw engine runs all the time, but you don't want the chain spinning unless you're actually cutting wood: that's dangerous and it wastes energy. The clutch solves this problem. As explained in more detail below, the centrifugal clutch connects the engine and the chain when the engine speed is fast (when the operator pulls on the throttle) and stops the chain from spinning when the engine speed is low (when the Stihl Chainsaw Replacement Parts are just idling).




Gears carry power from the clutch to the sprocket that holds the chain.




The chain spins around the edge of a long-steel plate called the guide bar, spitting out wood dust as it goes!




Advantages


The main advantage of using a chainsaw—speed—is fairly obvious. It would be hard to spend an entire day chopping your way through a forest with a handsaw, but you could certainly do that with a chainsaw.


A little crude math shows why a Chainsaw Chain is maybe 5–10 times quicker than an ordinary hand saw. Think how many planks of wood you could make from a single, trimmed tree trunk: maybe ten or fifteen? Now think how laborious it is to saw through a single plank with a handsaw; cutting through an entire tree is going to take you at least 10 times as long, assuming you don't run out of energy or melt your saw blade first.


Let's try a more sophisticated estimate. Suppose you have a tree that is 30cm (roughly 1ft) in diameter and a chainsaw that makes a cut of 0.5mm (0.02in) into the wood with each pass of the chain. That means the chain needs to pass through the wood 600 times (30cm = 300mm and it takes two chain passes to remove each mm). If you're using a powerful chainsaw with a rotational speed of about 2800rpm (call it 3000rpm to make the math easy), the chain will (theoretically) make 600 passes in just 20 seconds. In practice, it'll take somewhat longer. Let's say a minute.


How long would it take with a handsaw? Suppose your saw has teeth the same size as the chainsaw's and suppose it's roughly the same length as the Husqvarna Chainsaw Parts (and therefore half as long as the chain). You still need to make those 600 passes through the wood. Maybe you're superhuman: suppose you can make one complete pass of the saw each second and keep up that pace constantly. Then it's still going to take, as a minimum, 600 seconds—or 10 minutes. In practice, it's going to take quite a bit longer as you get tired, as the saw slips out of its groove from time to time, and so on. These are only guesstimate, back-of-envelope calculations—but you get the idea: using a chainsaw is certainly several times faster (and probably 5–10 times faster) than using a good handsaw.


Disadvantages


The two biggest drawbacks of Saw Chain Sharpener are safety and maintenance. Although chainsaws can be used by any fairly strong adult (after suitable training), they are nevertheless inherently dangerous. (I have the manual for a Stihl MS270 chainsaw open beside me as I write this and it's interesting to note that about 16 of the 64 pages—fully a quarter of the text—is devoted to warnings and safety precautions.) The biggest risk comes from a problem called kickback, where the chain catches on something but the engine keeps turning, so the whole saw flies up and backward toward your head (think action and reaction—Newton's third law of motion), potentially causing fatal injuries. Chainsaw helmets with visors offer some protection; so too do chainsaw uniforms (made from synthetic fibers such as nylon, which snag up the chainsaw teeth and bring the machine quickly to a halt).


The other big problem with Chainsaw Mill is the amount of maintenance they need. A handsaw is delightfully maintenance free: the sawdust you produce simply falls out of the groove you're making. In a chainsaw, the super-fine dust can get caught up in the mechanism and mix with the chain's lubricating oil to make a gungy mess that has to be cleaned out regularly. Again, looking at the manual for the Stihl MS270, it's interesting to see there's a full-page chart spelling out a couple of dozen different checks and maintenance jobs you have to do before starting work each day, or on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis thereafter. So while it's true to saw that chainsaws save you time in the actual chopping of wood, some of that time is, unfortunately, lost in maintenance!

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