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  Making process control valve choices
Posted by: wio228 - 09-21-2021, 05:36 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Today’s process control valves offer an ever wider range of features and benefits for industries that require precise control over fluids, steam and other gases. With so many control valves to choose from it is important to establish the features that will deliver the most cost-effective design for a particular application.

Control valves are used to manage the flow rate of a liquid or a gas and in-turn control the temperature, pressure or liquid level within a process. As such, they are defined by the way in which they operate to control flow and include globe valves, angle seat, diaphragm, quarter-turn, knife and needle valves, to name a few. In most cases the valve bodies are made from metal; either brass, forged steel or in hygienic applications 316 stainless steel.

Actuators will use an on-board system to measure the position of the valve with varying degrees of accuracy, depending on the application. A contactless, digital encoder can place the valve in any of a thousand positions, making it very accurate, while more rudimentary measurements can be applied to less sensitive designs.

One of the main areas of debate when specifying globe control valve is determining the size of the valve required. Often process engineers will know the pipe diameter used in an application and it is tempting to take that as the control valve’s defining characteristic. Of greater importance are the flow conditions within the system as these will dictate the size of the orifice within the control valve. The pressure either side of the valve and the expected flow rate are essential pieces of information when deciding on the valve design.

Inside the valve body, the actuator design is often either a piston or a diaphragm design. The piston design typically offers a smaller, more compact valve which is also lighter and easier to handle than the diaphragm designs. Actuators are usually made from stainless steel or polyphenolsulpide (PPS), which is a chemically-resistant plastic. The actuator is topped off by the control head or positioner.

Older, pneumatically operated positioners had a flapper/nozzle arrangement and operated on 3-15psi, so no matter what the state of the valve, open closed or somewhere in between, the system was always expelling some compressed air to the atmosphere.

Compressed air is an expensive commodity, requiring considerable energy to generate and when a manufacturing line is equipped with multiple process control valves all venting to the atmosphere, this can equate to a considerable waste of energy. It is important to not only establish the most appropriate valve design, but also a cost-effective solution that takes account of annual running costs.

Modern, digital, electro-pneumatic valves that use micro-solenoid valves to control the air in and out of the actuator have introduced significant improvements for operators. This design means that while the valve is fully open, fully closed or in a steady state, it is not consuming any air. This, and many other engineering improvements, have made substantial advances in both economy and precision.

Flexible designs
Valve seats can be interchangeable within a standard valve body, which allows the valve to fit existing pipework and the valve seat to the sized to the application more accurately. In some cases, this can be achieved after the valve has been installed, which would enable a process change to be accommodated without replacing the complete valve assembly.

Selecting the most appropriate seal materials is also an important step to ensure reliable operation; Steam processes would normally use metal-to-metal seals, whereas a process that included a sterilization stage may require chemically resistant seals.

Setting up and installing a new valve is now comparatively easy and much less time-consuming. In-built calibration procedures should be able perform the initial setup procedures automatically, measuring the air required to open and close the valve, the resistance of the piston seals on the valve stem and the response time of the valve itself.

Improving safety
Control valves should be specified so they operate in the 40-85% range so if the valve is commanded to a 10% setting, it can detect if something has potentially gone wrong with the control system and the best course of action is to close the valve completely. If the valve is commanded to a position of 10% or less this can cause very high fluid or gas velocities, which have damaging effects on the system and cause considerable noise and damage to the valve itself.

Modern control functionality can offer a solution that acts as a safety device to prevent damage to the process pipework and components. By building in a fail-safe mechanism, any valve position setting below a pre-set threshold will result in the valve closing completely, preventing damage to the surrounding system.

Control inputs can also include safety circuits to ensure safe operating conditions within the process equipment. For example, if an access panel on a vessel containing steam is opened, an interlock switch will open and the valve controlling the steam supply to the vessel can be automatically closed, helping mitigate any risks.

Improving reliability
Many process control environments offer less than ideal conditions for long-term reliability. Moisture-laden atmospheres, corrosive chemicals and regular wash-downs all have the capacity to shorten the service life of a process Self regulating control valve. One of the potential weaknesses of the actuator is the spring chamber where atmospheric air is drawn in each time the valve operates.

One solution is to use clean, instrument air to replenish the spring chamber, preventing any contamination from entering. This offers a defense against the ingress of airborne contaminants by diverting a small amount of clean control air into the control head, maintaining a slight positive pressure, thus achieving a simple, innovative solution. This prevents corrosion of the internal elements and can make a significant improvement to reliability and longevity in certain operating conditions.

While choosing the most appropriate process control valve can be a complex task, it is often best achieved with the assistance of expert knowledge. Working directly with manufacturers or knowledgeable distributors enables process control systems to be optimized for long-term reliability as well as precision and efficiency.

Damien Moran is field segment manager, Hygienic – Pharmaceutical at Bürkert. This article originally appeared on the Control Engineering Europe website. Edited by Chris Vavra, associate editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media and technology, cvavra@cfemedia.com.
Control valves are generally present whenever fluid flow regulation is required. The three way and angle control valve reliability is critical to the control quality and safety of a plant. An improved dynamic and static valve behaviour would have a major impact on the process output. In order to assess the dynamic performance of the control valve, a computer model of an electro-hydraulic control valve is developed. And the control valve characteristics are investigated through the use of mathematical simulations of the control valve dynamic performance. The results show that the electro-hydraulic driven control valve, which is developed to regulate the mixed-gas pressure in combined cycle power plant, can meet the challenge of the gas turbine.
Control valves play important roles in the control of the mixed-gas pressure in the combined cycle power plants (CCPP). In order to clarify the influence of coupling between the structure and the fluid system at the control valve, the coupling mechanism was presented, and the numerical investigations were carried out. At the same operating condition in which the pressure oscillation amplitude is greater when considering the coupling, the low-order natural frequencies of the plug assembly of the valve decrease obviously when considering the fluid-structure coupling action. The low-order natural frequencies at 25% valve opening, 50% valve opening, and 75% valve opening are reduced by 11.1%, 7.0%, and 3.8%, respectively. The results help understand the processes that occur in the valve flow path leading to the pressure control instability observed in the control valve in the CCPP.

1. Introduction
The steel mills generate vast amounts of blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) in the production. In order to reduce the environmental pollution, some steel mills mix BFG with COG and build combined cycle power plants (CCPP) to make use of the gas [1]. For the normal operation of CCPP, the pressure of mixed gas delivered to the gas turbine should be kept in a steady range.

In CCPP, control valves play important roles in the control of the mixed-gas pressure. The signal of mixed-gas pressure measured using the pressure meter is compared to the signal of the desired pressure by the controller. The controller output accordingly adjusts the opening/closing actuator of the control valve in order to maintain the actual pressure close to the desired pressure. The opening of the control valve depends on the flow forces and the driving forces of the control-valve actuator, while the flow forces and the driving forces are affected by the valve opening. Therefore, there is strong coupling interaction between the fluid and the control valve structure.

According to Morita et al. (2007) and Yonezawa et al. (2008), the typical flow pattern around the Knife Gate Valve is transonic [2, 3]. When pressure fluctuations occur, large static and dynamic fluid forces will act on the valves. Consequently, problematic phenomena, such as valve vibrations and loud noises, can occur, with the worst cases resulting in damage of the valve plug and seal [4]. In order to understand the underlying physics of flow-induced vibrations in a steam control valve head, experimental investigations described by Yonezawa et al. (2012) are carried out. Misra et al. (2002) reported that the self-excited vibration of a piping system occurs due to the coincidence of water hammer, acoustic feedback in the downstream water piping, high acoustic resistance at the control valve, and negative hydraulic stiffness at the control valve [5]. Araki et al. (1981) reported that the steam control-valve head oscillation mechanism was forced vibration, while self-excited vibration was not observed [6].

Those studies cited previously are mainly aimed at the modeling of the self-excited vibration, the analysis of vibration parameters stability, and so on [7–11]. Whereas, the studies on the influence of nonlinear fluid-structure coupling of control valve on the valve control characteristics, such as the pressure regulation feature, are still very limited [12–17]. In the CCPP, the valve control characteristics affected by the fluid-structure coupling are particularly important for the stability of the mixed-gas pressure control. It has not been uncommon to see that the instability of the mixed-gas pressure causes a severe disturbance or even an emergency shutdown of the whole plant, and the handling of such an emergency often becomes a source of new problems and confusion. In this paper, numerical investigations are carried out to clarify the influence of fluid-structure coupling of control valve on not only the flow field but also the gas pressure regulation and the natural frequency changes of the control valve. This study helps understand the processes that occur in the valve flow path leading to the mixed-gas pressure pulsations, which is valuable for the pressure stability control of the mixed gas in the CCPP.

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  How are hybrid inverters used in solar projects?
Posted by: wio228 - 09-21-2021, 05:31 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

This paper proposes a new configuration of a single-phase hybrid inverter with an integrated battery energy storage, which is suitable for residential households to maximize local consumption of solar energy and thus reduce dependency on grid support. The hybrid inverter is called Direct Storage Hybrid (DSH) Inverter. A transformer-less topology such as HERIC, operating at low frequency to generate a three-level rectangular output voltage, is adopted to connect a photovoltaic (PV) panel to the load and/or the grid. A series active filter is employed to compensate the high harmonic components from the rectangular voltage and provide a sinusoidal voltage. A bidirectional dc/dc converter connects the battery to the PV panel to control the battery state of charge (SoC) and optimize the PV panel operation during both off-grid and grid-connected modes. The DSH inverter can let the battery bypass the dc/dc converter and connect directly to the inverter stage, leading to a significant improvement in throughput efficiency in battery utilization. This paper discusses the operation and loss analysis of the DSH inverter in off-grid mode.
This paper is designed in such a way that it overcomes this limitation by the use of solar energy. NA hybrid inverter lv with Solar Battery Charging System consists of an inverter powered by a 12V Battery. This inverter generates up to 230V AC with the help of driver circuitry and a heavy load transformer. This battery gets charged from two sources, first being the mains power supply itself and second from the solar power. If the mains power supply is available, then the relay switches to main power supply for supplying the load. This power supply also charges the battery for using it as back up the next time when there is a power outage. The use of solar panel to charge the battery gives an additional advantage of surplus power in case the power outage of mains is prolonging. Thus this inverter can last for longer duration’s and provide uninterrupted power supply to the user.
Hybrid inverters are commonly used in the developing world, but they are starting to make their way into daily use in certain areas of the U.S due to their ability to stabilize energy availability.

A solar inverter’s main job is to convert DC power generated from the array into usable AC power. Hybrid inverters go a step further and work with batteries to store excess power as well. This type of system solves issues renewable energy variability and unreliable grid structures.
“Inverters for grid-tied applications can only provide power based on what the array can immediately generate from the sun,” explained Bryan Whitton, product manager at Darfon. “Hybrid inverters can store power in batteries and then drawn upon it as needed for energy stabilization.”

Hybrid inverters can vary in size, performance and features. But Mara White, product manager for OutBack Power, said most models usually operate bi-directionally, meaning they can convert DC power from modules to usable AC power and then convert stored AC from the batteries to power loads when needed. “Hybrids can also remain grid-connected and use a mix of renewable and non-renewable energy to charge batteries and offset loads,” White added.

Some contractors have used hybrid inverters in the residential, remote home applications for the past decade or two. But Allan Gregg, VP of applications engineering at GreatWall—which manufactures Satcon inverters—said the range of applications has expanded over the past few years to include large capacity microgrids as well as grid-connected systems.

Historically, hybrid inverters have been used more frequently in developing countries that do not have access to a reliable power grid.

“In North America and Europe, hybrid inverter-based systems are usually elective,” White explained. “Users choose to use them for storing energy for self-consumption or provide back-up power during emergencies. But in the developing world, hybrids are more of a necessity to compensate for weak or intermittent grids or a lack of grid electricity all together. Microgrids in places such as India, Asia and Africa are also driving na hybrid inverter hv adaptation.”
Still, Whitton said hybrid models are beginning to be used on a more daily basis in areas of the U.S. where the grid is unpredictable, such as Hawaii, or in states where net-metering has been widely supported. “Applications with less than ideal solar characteristic are also good for hybrid-based systems because they can store power and redistribute it during peak times, improving payback,” he added. “Basically, if the site has the potential for losing the grid frequently, you should consider a hybrid for off-grid operation.”

Having the flexibility of a hybrid system can add initial cost to a project, though experts say this can be offset by the ability to self-consume all of one’s available PV electricity.

There are also important design considerations when using hybrid inverters. For example, Gregg warned that the battery bank voltage should be compatible with the DC input requirements of the inverter, and there should be enough solar capacity to supply the load as well as charge the batteries.

Wiring can also be more complex when using hybrid inverters, especially when panels are dedicated for critical backed-up loads. “And as with any device that does several jobs at once, a hybrid inverter is usually slightly less efficient,” White added, “although, improvements in other balance-of-system components can compensate for that slight loss easily.”

There are also specific electrical safety issues with any type of energy storage, so White recommended getting specialized training in energy storage techniques and design. “Most available training is focused on simple grid-tied systems because they have been the majority of U.S. solar installations until now,” she said. “But with incentives changing and the surge in energy storage interest and applications, it’s important to get ahead of the curve and get advanced training quickly.”

Andrew McCalla of Austin, Texas-based Meridian Solar, a Solar Power World top contractor, said he commonly used hybrids in the mid to late ’90s when the now standard grid-tie inverter sector was just a glimmer. “I can imagine that, when regulatory hurdles are fabricated to limit the consumer and societal benefits of bi-directional power flow from distributed generation, these battery-based platforms will become far more common. What is old is new again!”
Another segment of hybrid inverters includes inverters that can use two energy sources. For example, Ginlong offers a PV / wind lv battery hybrid inverter that has inputs for both sources, instead of having to use two inverters. In much of the United States, wind speeds are low in the summer when the sun shines brightest and longest. The wind is strong in the winter when less sunlight is available. Therefore, because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, such hybrid systems have the potential to produce power when it’s needed, and reach a higher return on investment.
When you first consider getting solar or battery storage on your home or business, one of the first things you will discover is that you will require an inverter and that there are many different types of inverters available. This article is designed to provide an introduction to the different kinds of inverters available and help you to understand which one will suit your installation. So what does an inverter do? Simply put an Inverter converts DC power to AC power. Solar panels produce DC power and batteries store DC, however most of our appliances run on AC power, as does the electricity grid. This is why all solar systems and battery storage systems need an inverter however there are several different types of inverters depending on whether or not energy storage batteries are required.

On-grid solar installations are the most common and most affordable type of system available at present. These systems use a simple solar inverter, which convert the DC power from your solar panels into AC power which can be fed directly into the grid, or used in your home appliances. 

Off-grid and hybrid systems are much more complex because they involve both solar panels as well as battery storage. Multiple inverters are often required in these installations such as a solar inverter and sophisticated battery inverter/charger to manage both grid connection and the charging and discharging of the batteries. These advanced inverter/chargers are known as interactive or multi-mode inverters. However, in recent years a new type of inverter has become available which integrates solar and battery inverter technology into what is known as an all-in-one hv battery hybrid inverter.

A micro-inverter is a very small inverter that is attached to the back of a solar panel. A micro-inverter only converts the power of one or two solar panels to AC so generally many microinverters are required in a single system. Micro-inverters have several advantages over string inverters including performance, safety and monitoring, however the upfront cost can be significantly greater. For more details about micro-inverters, check out our micro-inverters article.

String solar inverters come in single phase and three phase versions although most residential homes in the US and Australia use single phase power, while many homes in Europe use 3-phase power, also all businesses and factories will have three phase power. As a general rule most String solar inverters between 1-6kW are single phase and greater than 6kW are usually three phase.

As home energy storage systems have surged in popularity a new kind of advanced Inverter has emerged known as an hybrid inverter. Hybrid inverters combines a solar inverter and battery inverter/charger into one simple unit. These inverters are a very economical way to enable what is known as ‘self-use’ or 'load shifting' of energy. Allowing you to store solar or off-peak energy in a battery to be used during peak times. Although it is important to know that some all-in-one inverters cannot function during a power outage such as when there is a blackout. They can also have limited functionality and monitoring capabilities.The traditional off-grid solar system uses a simple battery inverter that converters DC power from a battery bank to AC power to supply your home or appliances, these systems need separate battery chargers and regulators. There are more advanced versions of these battery inverters with built in chargers known as inverter/chargers. In recent years very advanced inverters have become available which are inverter/chargers with in-built generator control systems, advanced monitoring capabilities and other features, these are known as interactive or multi-mode inverters. They are typically used in conjunction with a solar inverter to create what is known as an AC coupled system. You can learn more about these and other hybrid inverter types here.

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  Preparation of activated carbon from biomass and its’ applications in water and gas p
Posted by: tgh228 - 09-16-2021, 06:07 PM - Forum: iPhone Apps - No Replies

Due to its versatility and wide range of applications, activated carbon is widely used as contaminant removal media. Recent research have focused on enhancing the effectiveness of activated carbon by modifying their specific properties in order to enable the carbon to develop affinity for certain contaminants. In view of this, a comprehensive list of literatures on chemical, physical and biological modification techniques of activated carbon pertaining to enhancement of contaminant removal from aqueous solutions was compiled and reviewed. Acidic treatment to introduce acidic functional groups onto surface of coal based activated carbon was by far, the most studied technique. It was apparent from the literature survey that the beneficial effects of specific modification techniques on activated carbon adsorption of targeted contaminant species from aqueous solutions were profound, with some studies reported increase of contaminant uptake factors of more than 2. Concurrently, considerable decreases associated with certain contaminant uptakes can also occur depending on the technique used.
Without pure water, it is impossible to survive for any living beings. The ratio of freshwater on our planet is very poor and the demand is increasing with time for the growing population. Furthermore, water is being contaminated by industrial and agricultural activities, pharmaceuticals, technocratic civilization, pesticides, garments, global changes etc. In addition to this, environmental pollution and global warming are swelling due to the greenhouse and harmful gases generated from the dumping and burning of fossil fuel. Addressing these problems, it is necessary to find out the cost-effective and environmental friendly processes to purify the contaminated water and air. Activated carbons (ACs) are one of the best solutions for removing the pollutants from aqueous and atmosphere as it is the carbonaceous materials with a high degree of porosity, well-developed surface area, and distinguished functional groups which are required for elimination of contaminants. The preparations of activated carbon are easy and safe processes, mainly from the pyrolysis or gasification of biomass with heat and/or chemicals. The recycling and regeneration of bituminous coal based activated carbon after use are also essential for resource maintenance and environmental safety. Thus, AC can protect the ecosystem in a double direction by purifying the water and air from the pollutants.
As the world’s population continues to grow, the demand for water increasing by 1% annually (WWAP/UN-Water, 2018). The population increase corresponds to the economic growth and development leading to rise in the use of chemical compounds, industrial compounds, agricultural wastes which pose the risk of polluting the existing water sources (Mohammad Razi, Al-Gheethi, Al-Qaini, and Yousef, 2018; Oladipo, Ifebajo, Nisar, and Ajayi, 2017; Qaisrani, Shams, Zhenren, Reza, and Zainuddin, 2018). It has reported that 663 million people have lacked access to clean water and 2.2 million deaths occurring due to diarrhea caused by inadequate sanitation and ingestion of contaminated potable water (Huang et al., 2018). The river, lake, and groundwater sources are contaminated due to fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, dyes, heavy metals from the industry which results in diseases like cancer, skin defect, kidney damage, liver problems, etc. (Ahmad and Danish, 2018). On the other hand, the burning of fossil fuel generates the greenhouse (GHG) and harmful gases like CO2, CH4, H2S, NO2 to the environment which are increasing with current energy demand for the rapid economic development (Ahmed, Abu Bakar, Azad, Sukri, and Mahlia, 2018a). Therefore, it is highly desirable to find the cheap and environmentally friendly adsorbent to get rid of the pollutants from water and air.
Of the above techniques, adsorption is one of the most popular methods used for the elimination of contaminants from wastewater due to its features of cost-effective, easy to operate, environment-friendly, low health risk, and non-destructive process (Balasundram et al., 2017; Oladipo and Gazi, 2015; Oladipo and Ifebajo, 2018). The addition of activated carbon (AC) in the adsorption process aids in the removal of a wide range of contaminants and carcinogenic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, metallic and non-metallic pollutants, dye and even taste and odor from aqueous solutions (Din, Ashraf, & Intisar, 2017). In comparison with other adsorbents like zeolite, clays, and polymers, AC shows better performance and stability in terms of adsorption (Regti, Laamari, Stiriba, and El Haddad, 2017). Recently, the pollutant gas adsorption by activated carbon has been recognized as a promising technology for the attraction mechanism between the pollutant and the surface functional groups (Le-Minh, Sivret, Shammay, and Stuetz, 2018). Production of AC from biomass can be seen as advantageous in two ways, firstly, it can prevent the production of CO2 by fixing the carbon and secondly, the AC can go into the soil naturally (Danish and Ahmad, 2018).

AC is carbonaceous material with an amorphous structure solid which has a high degree of porosity and well-developed surface area with numerous oxygenated functional groups such as carboxylic acids, phenols, carbonyls and lactones (Benedetti, Patuzzi, and Baratieri, 2018). The pores present on the AC surface are of significant importance and they exist in three forms: microspores, mesopores, and macropores (Jodeh, Abdelwahab, Jaradat, Warad, and Jodeh, 2016). Except for macropores that contribute the least contribution, the other pores contribute to the increase of the surface area and their presence on carbons is vital as they are the main source of driving the adsorption of gases and. In addition, functional groups also help promote adsorption capabilities (Elsayed et al., 2017). These distinctive characteristics make AC a versatile substance material that can be used not only as an adsorbent in water and gases but also as a catalyst or co-catalyst for the removal of pollutants from gases, liquids as well as the recovery of chemicals (Afif et al., 2019). Most studies have shown satisfactory results of ACs, specifically the effectiveness of removing organic compounds like dye, phenolic compounds, and inorganic compounds. They are also used in the field of the pharmaceutical industry to get rid of ingested toxins from the human body, recovery of gold, silver, and other metals (Vences-Alvarez et al., 2017). They are used as catalysts and co-catalyst in the gas mask filter company, food industries, chemical industries and automobile pollution control companies (Danish and Ahmad, 2018).

Usually, ACs are produced from finite resources such as coal, lignite, peat, petroleum residue materials that are expensive and required intensive regeneration (Yahya et al., 2018). It is reported that the demand for AC is estimated to increase by up to 2.1 million metric tons by the year 2018 (Maneerung et al., 2016). The high demand and the necessities have led to the discovery of cheaper, environmental-friendly and sustainable resources for the production of AC like biochar from thermal treatment of biomass. The primary sources of AC are agricultural waste, sewage, municipal waste, industrial waste, forestry residue, acacia species, Imperata cylindrica(Ahmed et al., 2018a, Ahmed, Parvaz, Johari, and Rafat, 2018b; Danish and Ahmad, 2018 ). Acacia species are known as the most invasive and they have adverse effects on other trees, and thus, threatens the biodiversity seriously (Hidayat, Abu Bakar, Yang, Phusunti, and Bridgwater, 2018; Islam, Mohamad, and Azad, 2019). A total of 1350 different types of acacia trees are known to exist in the world, which can grow in any climate (Ahmed, Hidayat, et al., 2018c; Radenahmad, Rahman, Morni, and Azad, 2018; Reza et al., 2019 ). Improvements in biofuel technology have developed the new technique to manage these invasive acacia trees to convert them into biochar (Alhinai, Azad, Bakar, and Phusunti, 2018) which can produce wood based activated carbon.

For activated carbon, biochar is the primary source which can be produced from the thermochemical conversion of biomass like pyrolysis or gasification (Odetoye, Abu Bakar, and Titiloye, 2019; Radenahmad et al., 2020). Through slow pyrolysis, a higher amount of biochar can be produced from various types of precursors, typically biomass as a feedstock under a range of processes and operating conditions (Reza et al., 2020). Pyrolysis/gasification is the process to generate biochar, bio-oil, and biogas from biomass which has different properties than the parent biomass (Abu Bakar, 2013; Odetoye, Onifade, AbuBakar, and Titiloye, 2013). Bio-oil can be used as energy after refinement (Odetoye, Afolabi, Abu Bakar, and Titiloye, 2018). Biogas is the combination of different gases that can be used as fuel in a fuel cell (Abdalla et al., 2018; Afif et al., 2016; Afroze et al., 2020b, 2020a, 2019; Radenahmad et al., 2016). Finally, the solid residue is the biochar which can be converted into activated carbon (Morni et al., 2018). Using the same precursor, different types of ACs can be produced by activating agents under different operating conditions (Yusuff, 2019). Activated carbon can be produced by physical, chemical, physiochemical and microwave-assisted activation of biochar and biomass. Physical activation consists of heat and gas (steam, CO2, N2 or mixture), chemical activation is done by chemical agents (acid, base, metal oxide, alkaline metal), physiochemical activation involves heat and chemical and microwave-assisted activation is by microwave radiation (Ao et al., 2018). The activation depends on particle size, retention time, impregnation ratio, procedure configuration, activation period, properties of the precursor, and chemical substances. To further improve the features of AC, researchers have been performing research studies for producing much better AC via loading nanoparticles on the surface of this material which may be used in the removal of organic and inorganic compounds from aqueous solutions more efficiently (Lakshmi et al., 2018).

The present paper reviews the efficiency of different types of activation processes of activated carbon from biomass. The adsorption capacity of contaminants and pollutants from water and air has been described elaborately to get pure water with clean air. The recycling/regeneration and handling process of Saw Dust Activated Carbon is also illustrated.

2. Preparation of activated carbon
For the preparations of shell activated carbon, two basic steps are maintained. The first one is the carbonization and the second one is the activation. Carbonization is done through the pyrolysis/gasification at a higher temperature in an inert atmosphere to produce the biochar (Odetoye et al., 2019). In this stage, the carbon content of the carbonaceous substance was prepared by removing the volatile matter through thermal degradation (Radenahmad et al., 2020). The temperature, the heating rate, the nitrogen gas flow rate and the residence time are the significant parameters in this stage. As the achieved biochar reveals low adsorption ability, an activation process is essential to improve the pore volume, the pore diameter and the surface area (X. Yang et al., 2019). In the activation process, initially, the disorganized carbon was eliminated, exposed the lignin to the activating agents and developed the microporous structure. Finally, the existing pores are widened to a large size by burning of the walls between the pores. This raises the intermediate pores and macro-porosity which reduces the volume of micro-pores. Depending on the type of activation, activation can be a process prior to carbonization or subsequent to carbonization for the elimination of deposited tarry substances in biochar that can help to enhance the porosity and to provide high surface areas for the ACs (Ukanwa et al., 2019). 

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  Auto-disable syringes are not for needle programmes
Posted by: tgh228 - 09-16-2021, 06:04 PM - Forum: iPhone Apps - No Replies

WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself.
UNICEF is working to buy 1 billion syringes by the end of 2021 for COVID-19 vaccination efforts in countries participating in the COVAX Facility.  Although the vaccines secured by the Facility may vary in their formulation and storage requirements, the syringes will all be of the auto-disable (AD) type, approved by the World Health Organization.   
AD syringes are recommended for immunization programmes because they are designed to prevent re-use by locking automatically after a single use. They are the best way of ensuring that people receive their shots safely, without a risk of contracting an infection due to contaminated needles. The AD syringes bought for this immense operation are similar to those routinely procured and delivered by UNICEF for the vaccination of children worldwide.
Joint efforts for safe injection
Until a few decades ago, children were vaccinated using safety syringe, which exposed them to the risk of transmission of bloodborne diseases like Hepatitis B and HIV. “Sometimes, these used syringes were resold and reused, and we have encountered instances of children using them as toys”, tells Robin Nandy, UNICEF Chief of Immunization.
According to a study sponsored by WHO in 2014, up to 1.7 million people contracted hepatitis B, up to 315 000 with hepatitis C, and 33,800 with HIV through unsafe injections.
The situation started to improve in 1999, when UNICEF, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) jointly called for the improvement in injection safety standards. In a statement, the organizations noted that AD syringes were already available and affordable and declared that they should be the device of choice for administering vaccines in both routine services and during mass campaigns.
Since then, several initiatives have driven progress in injection safety for immunization. An example of collective advocacy was taken by the Measles and Rubella Initiative (M&RI), launched in 2001 and led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, UNICEF and the World Health Organization. The partnership required that safe injection equipment, including AD syringes, were used as part of the support they provided countries to carry out vaccination campaigns.
With the support of major donors, UNICEF has been playing a key role in the global effort for safe injection. The number of auto disable syringe UNICEF procured grew from 11 million in 1997 to around 600-800 million per year. UNICEF is also the world’s largest buyer of AD syringes, procuring 40% of the global market. This growth has been accompanied by a significant price drop. Three decades ago, UNICEF paid US$ 0.12 per unit of an AD syringe. The price has since fallen to US$ 0.03 per unit.
“All these developments have been the result of a global programmatic decision to use AD syringes for immunization supported by a variety of stakeholders”, says Robert Matthews, head of the Medical Devices Unit in UNICEF Supply Division. He explains that a number of elements, including funding from donors like Gavi and M&RI, have helped influence and shift the market away from traditional disposable reusable syringes towards the use of AD syringes for immunization.
Through COVAX, UNICEF is keeping its commitment to safe injection by exclusively buying AD syringes for the COVID-19 vaccination. “With safe injection equipment we strive to guarantee that the good intention embodied in the vaccine does not do harm”, says Robert.
As you may have seen in the media recently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has launched new guidelines on medical injections and a global campaign to switch all medical and vaccination injections to syringes that cannot be used more than once. These "safety-engineered syringes" may, for example, include a weak spot in the plunger that causes it to break if the user attempts to pull back on the plunger after the injection. Others have a metal clip that blocks the plunger so it cannot be moved back, while in others the needle retracts into the luer slip type syringe barrel at the end of the injection. Using these syringes in medical settings will, according to WHO, protect millions of people from becoming infected with HIV, hepatitis and other diseases through the re-use of unsterile equipment by doctors and medical staff, especially in the poorest health systems in the world. Their ambitious aim is that every country should have transitioned to these new syringes by 2020.

However, these recommendations and this campaign explicitly do not apply to needle and syringe programmes for people who inject drugs (the population most impacted by HIV, hepatitis and other diseases transmitted through contaminated injecting equipment). It has been demonstrated and proven on many occasions that these auto-disable syringes are unsuitable, ineffective and undesirable in these programmes – clients simply do not like them, they are often harder to use, and they cost more. For example, drug preparation and injection amongst people who inject drugs routinely involves more than one retraction or depression of the syringe plunger, making auto-disable syringes inappropriate. Several peer-reviewed studies have also documented the inadequacy of auto-disable syringes for people who inject drugs – see this informative briefing from the USA's Harm Reduction Coalition for more information.
As a result, and after intensive lobbying by the NNEF and other civil society partners around the world, the WHO guidelines (available here) include the clear exemption that health systems must set "policies and standards for procurement, use and safe disposal of disposable [i.e. not auto-disable] syringes in situations where they remain necessary as described above, including in syringe programmes for people who inject drugs". Similar disclaimers appear in the accompanying leaflet and press release – but this has not been picked up in the media reporting, such as the recent BBC article.
So in short, auto-disable or auto-retract syringes remain unsuitable for needle and syringe programmes. Of course, the message must continue to be that every syringe is intended to be single use, and programmes should continue to use low dead space syringes as before. But these new guidelines from WHO should not change the way that we work.
Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of “Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)” was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated luer lock type syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.
Auto-disable syringe has a mechanism to immobilize the plunger or block the needle or cause the syringe to leak when a second injection is attempted hence it cannot be reused. The needle is also fixed permanently in the syringe to prevent the reuse of the needle as well. Mandatory use of auto-disable syringes for vaccination is a good step for ensuring injection safety. But associated cost and safe disposal is a serious limitation for developing countries. Although auto-disable syringe cannot be reused, the exposed needle can be risky. Moreover disposal of auto-disable syringe is also a challenge in developing countries where the infrastructure for disposal is lacking. Despite the growing awareness about the need of safe health care waste management (including disposal of injectable), compliance is lacking.[4] So, pros and cons of each intervention, in context to the implementation region and resources should be analysed before implementation.
The healthcare workers (front line workers) should be actively involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of new technologies and other changes in the practice, for the practical and successful implementation.[4]
Injections have saved many lives but at the same time carry the risk of infections. So the current concern is how to make this practice more safe and beneficial in developing nations? Various strategies such as educational, managerial and regulatory have been discussed but challenges have to be overcome for their successful implementation. Rational use of injections, proper management and disposal of injectable products can lead to safe injection practice and for this honest commitment and participation is required from service provider, recipient and community with support from policy makers. More research to understand the problem in individual countries and regions is required to develop evidence based interventions.

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  Multi-Cookers For Every Kind of Household
Posted by: buo226 - 09-15-2021, 06:36 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Whether you have a large family or live alone, there is always a magic multicooker to suit every kind of home. It could be a one-person pot, or a big sharing one - these popular Electric Multi Cookers do the cooking for you so you spend less time on great meals.
Not all of us are fortunate enough to be spending these lockdown times with our family or housemates. For those who are alone at home, under quarantine, or simply a healthcare worker living solo to protect their family, cooking for oneself can be a huge chore. Almost the same amount of preparation and cleaning goes into making a solo meal as cooking for two or more people. That is why this portable multi-cooker is an amazing find! Small, portable and easy-to-clean, this multi cooker is perfect for studio flats, tiny rental rooms, or just those without access to a kitchen. A dual cookware system allows you to both fry and boil – so you can whip up an automatic stir fry cooker to pair with a hearty carrot ginger turmeric soup. We love how both the pot and non-stick frying pan can be stacked together and used as a take-away container – ideal for all you hardworking essential services folks who still want to eat home-cooked food. Even the handles can be folded in when not in use, saving you precious storage space. What is more, you can brew a soothing Luo Han Guo Tea in a flat-based teapot (not included) for rainy days. It is definitely one of the best solo multi cookers out there!

It is important to keep your grill clean, but using a wire grill brush can be more dangerous than helpful.
Wire brushes have always been the standard for cleaning grill grates. However, it is been found that the bristles can actually break off and wind up in your food. Consumer Reports even issued a warning against using these brushes a couple of years ago.
Here is what you need to know about wire grill brush danger.

Why a Wire Grill Brush Can Be Dangerous
As you might expect, wire barbecue grill brush bristles are sharp. And one study revealed that between 2002 and 2014, around 1,700 Americans had to go to the emergency room after accidentally ingesting wire bristles. And those were just the reported cases! They can cause severe damage internally, and may even require emergency surgery.
Health Canada even pushed for a new national standard to help stop these incidents from happening.

Wire Grill Brush Alternatives
Luckily, this is a problem with an easy solution, because it is possible to clean your grill tools without a wire brush. There are plenty of other methods that work just as well, if not better.

For people with smaller grills, a giant brush isn’t really necessary. This expert metal grill brush and scrub pad is perfect for quick cleans between uses and really gets the job done.

How to Reduce Wire Grill Brush Danger
If you currently have a wire brush, give it a good once-over. If it has any loose or missing bristles, toss it. It is better to use some aluminum foil on the fly than take a chance with the wire grill cleaning brush. Make sure to double-check your grill as well and to check for stray bristles stuck on the grates.

So you might agree with me that health is the most important concern for everyone. But do you know that most of the fruit and vegetable we consume are contaminated with unknown pathogens, artificial waxes and harmful chemicals which comes from pesticides and negligence manhandling? One good way to reduce the chances of ingesting harmful substances and live a healthier lifestyle is to clean your vegetables and fruits before consuming them. You can achieve this without stress by using an ultrasonic vegetable and fruit cleaner.
The Vegetable Washing Machine is built to be portable, measuring only 4.5 inches. The size makes it perfect to take along when traveling. It helps to take care of your laundry, and that is why it is regarded as the smallest ultrasonic portable washing machine in the world. The device is constructed with medical-grade, high-quality stainless steel which makes it possible to serve you a lifetime.

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  Socket or portable battery
Posted by: buo226 - 09-15-2021, 06:34 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

USB fan is a small and portable device that's handy for personal, close-proximity cooling. As the name suggests, it's powered through a USB connection, such as the one in your computer, a power adapter that you plug into a wall outlet or a portable battery. Some can be self-powered using an internal battery that you recharge — over USB, of course — and, in turn, some of these models can even be used as a portable battery to add some charge to a phone.
Despite their size, USB portable mini fans can be powerful, and most offer different speed settings. They won't cool down an entire room, but they can keep you comfortable when used at a close distance, such as an office desk or bedside table. Best of all, they are inexpensive.
This small desk fan has three-speed settings — soft, natural wind, and strong wind — to keep you cool. Depending on the speed setting, the 2,200mAh battery provides between three and nine hours on one charge. There's blue backlighting you can use at night and emergency light for when you're in a critical situation.

Some people experience respiratory symptoms in the summer months, when the weather is hot, and the air contains more allergens. Air conditioners and fans can circulate dry air through the room, and air conditioners remove any moisture from the air. A humidifier may be beneficial during this season.
However, people are more likely to benefit from a humidifier in the cold months, when cold air dries out the lungs, nose, and lips. Also, some types of central heating can dry out the air indoors.

Insect repellent maintenance cost is low, and it is easy to use mosquito killer products. All you have to do is plug the mosquito trap into the USB and observe all the annoying and annoying mosquitoes in your area. The mosquito killer has a series of photocatalyst lamps, and the mosquitoes cannot resist and are attracted by the trap. The fan then sucks the mosquitoes inside and prevents them from escaping.

The countertop blender has a pitcher with spinning blades in the bottom that mounts onto a motorized base. More powerful and with more settings than immersion blenders, they can blend, mix, puree, grind, chop and even crush ice. If you cook often with vegetable purees or you love frozen drinks and smoothies, you will definitely want a countertop blender. Their reputation of being difficult to clean is a myth. Which blender you choose depends on your kitchen series needs. If you find that you do not work with frozen or hard ingredients often, the immersion blender is a space-saving gadget that can work in ways a countertop blender can not. Likewise, if you would rather have a larger appliance that can do more, you might prefer to get just a countertop blender.

If you have to sleep with a night light lamp on you might think that blue and white lights might create a calming sensation and help you sleep best. However, a new study involving hamsters suggests that blue light had the worst effects on mood, followed closely by white light.

For years, consumer electronics companies have competed primarily through technology, by cramming ever more features into products in a race to offer consumers the latest and greatest. But this approach can be fruitless. Even in the best of times, many manufacturers struggle to make money: despite falling component costs, intense competition can restrain price increases, and rapid obsolescence often makes it necessary to discount all but the very newest products.

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  Some ways to improve your sheet metal parts
Posted by: buo226 - 09-15-2021, 06:31 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Sheet metal fabrication is a handy set of manufacturing processes used to create parts from flat pieces of metal. Sheet metal comes in a range of materials and thicknesses, and can be used to create parts like appliances, enclosures, brackets, panels and chassis.
For those new to sheet metal fabrication, the process can seem daunting. Unlike versatile processes such as 3D printing and CNC machining, sheet metal fabrication is dictated by fairly strict design conventions. Sheet metal must be bent and cut in particular ways, and is only suitable for certain parts and products.
As such, it is important to learn some basic principles of sheet metal fabrication before embarking upon a project. Courtesy of rapid prototyping specialist 3ERP, this guide offers five simple tips to improve Sheet Metal Parts, turning ordinary designs into professional-quality sheet metal products.

What is sheet metal fabrication?
Sheet metal fabrication is a set of manufacturing processes that share one common trait: they all use sheet metal — as opposed to blocks, powder or molten metal — as feedstock. Different machines form the sheet metal in different ways: some make holes or incisions in the sheet metal; others bend, stamp or spin the metal to turn it into various shapes.
Using sheet metal fabrication, engineers can create durable, low-cost parts from a wide variety of metals. These stamping parts can be used across a range of industries, from aerospace to medicine to robotics.
The sheet metal used in the manufacturing process is usually between 0.006 and 0.25 inches (0.015 and 0.635 centimeters) thick, with the chosen size dependent on the given material and end-use of the part.

Improving sheet metal parts
Sheet metal fabrication is unique amongst the various manufacturing processes because its feedstock is unlike any other. For this reason, it can be difficult to design sheet metal parts when one is used to designing parts for machining, molding and other common manufacturing processes.
While the best way to ensure high-quality sheet metal parts is to consult and utilize a sheet metal specialist like 3ERP, it is also advantageous to follow certain design principles from the outset. By observing the following five tips, designers can create sheet metal parts that are strong, easy to fabricate and resistant to breakage.

Aluminum casting is a method for producing high tolerance and high-quality casting parts by inserting molten aluminum into a precisely designed and precision-engineered die, mold, or form. It is an efficient process for the production of complex, intricate, detailed parts that exactly match the specifications of the original design.
A positive benefit of aluminum casting parts is the layer of aluminum oxide that forms immediately after the part is removed from the mold, which provides a wall of protection against corrosion and rust.

Thanks to a wide range of machines and materials, CNC machining is capable of creating a vast array of professional parts for use in many industries. However, engineers must be careful to design parts in a way that suits the manufacturing process.
Considering the possibilities and limitations of the CNC machine — whether it’s a mill, a lathe or a high-end 5-axis machining center — leads to better machining parts, even if compromises have to be reached. A part is both enabled and constrained by its manufacturing process.
With that in mind, designing for manufacturability, by following certain design principles, ensures that parts will come out in the best way possible, will not break during machining, will not damage the machine itself, and will be fabricated in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

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  Coronavirus Face Masks & Protection FAQs
Posted by: buo226 - 09-15-2021, 06:27 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.
The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctor’s office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.

Can wear a face mask prevent coronavirus from spreading?
Yes. Although being fully vaccinated greatly reduces your chance of catching or spreading the coronavirus, it doesn’t eliminate it entirely. If you are infected with the coronavirus and do not know it, a protective face mask is very good at keeping your respiratory droplets and particles from infecting others. If you haven’t yet received your COVID-19 vaccine, wearing a mask can also help prevent germs that come from another person’s respiratory droplets from getting into your nose and mouth.
Since the coronavirus can spread through droplets and particles released into the air by speaking, singing, coughing or sneezing, medical face masks are still a good idea in crowded indoor public places that contain a mixture of vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.
Wearing a mask is still recommended in health care settings and other places where people around you may have risk factors for severe consequences of COVID-19. These include people over age 65 and those living with heart disease, diabetes, obesity, chronic lung disease, immunity problems or cancer.

Do I need to wear a face mask if I currently have COVID-19?
Yes. If you are actively infected with the coronavirus and cannot stay completely away from others in your home, droplets from your nose or mouth could infect another person who has not been vaccinated yet or who has a weakened immune system. Stay away from others as much as possible and wear your disposable face mask around others until your doctor says it’s safe to discontinue wearing it.

Medical gauze is a type of thin medical fabric with a loose open weave used in wound care. Both gauze pads and gauze sponges are made of 100% cotton. They wick vertically to draw exudates out of wounds and are stronger than other types of dressings due to their longer fibers. Our gauze is offered in both sterile and non-sterile forms. For open wounds, it is recommended to use sterile gauze only.

Do I need to bandage a cut or scrape?
You do not need to bandage every cut and scrape. Some heal more quickly when left uncovered to stay dry. But if the cut is on a part of the body that might get dirty or rub against clothes, put on a bandage to protect it. Change the bandage every day or whenever it gets wet or dirty.

Pure absorbent cotton wool has many uses in personal care and medical care. Pure cotton wool is used in a wide variety of nonwovens, such as baby and adult diapers, incontinence products, feminine hygiene pads, disinfection and disinfection wipes. Cotton wool balls are also household items and have a variety of uses, such as cleaning wounds and using skin care products. In health care, you'll see a wide range of applications for pure cotton, including dressings, bandages, and fillers. Cotton wool is also the basic fiber of choice for patients and medical staff in robes, curtains, gloves, masks, tooth rolls, and balls. Cotton wool can be used in all of these products, whether 100% cotton, cotton mixed with other fibers, or fabric composites.

The use of nonwovens in the medical arena goes back to the time of Second World War when need for new and large volumes of the medical products had arisen. In several reports published, nonwovens were regarded as the most effective materials for bacterial barriers. They were also found superior to linens in the reduction of air-borne contamination.
After significant development of non woven products, they were designed in a way to suit the medical needs and give a performance much better than their woven counterparts in terms of cost, effectiveness, disability, etc. In hospitals, cross-contamination is always one of the biggest problems which were attributed largely to re-using of woven gowns, masks and other similar articles which would get contaminated and potentially spread the germs. The advent of nonwovens facilitated the development of a more cost effective alternative that was disposable and reduced the problem of cross-contamination greatly.

Preparedness is a key element of first aid. While every home, auto, and boat should be equipped with a basic emergency kit that includes first aid supplies and a first aid manual, special circumstances may necessitate more advanced or specific degrees of preparation for an emergency.
For example, residents of certain geographic areas where natural disasters (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados, floods, landslides, or tsunamis) may occur should prepare for emergencies by assembling disaster preparedness kits such as earthquake kits, flood kits, and evacuation kits.
Travelers should also prepare to administer first aid in the region they plan to visit. In many developed countries, this may amount to packing standard first aid kits and manuals with your belongings.
Medicines to prevent motion sickness and advanced awareness about the management of traveler's diarrhea are also helpful to travelers.

There are lots of types of wound care dressing, with hundreds of brands offering a range of products – some highly similar to each other. The most basic requirements for a dressing are that it protects against further damage or infection and that it promotes a good healing environment. A good healing environment is one with the right amount of moisture – dry wounds don’t heal as well as moist wounds, but wounds that are too wet can cause skin breakdown around the wound and prevent healing. The absorbency of the dressing, therefore, needs to be chosen based on the assessment of each individual wound.

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  Medical Protective Clothing: The Complete Guide
Posted by: buo226 - 09-15-2021, 06:24 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Medical protective clothing, also known as medical protective suit, disposable protective coverall, or antivirus suit. Medical protective clothing refers to the protective clothing used by medical personnel (doctors, nurses, public health personnel, cleaners, etc.) and people entering a specific health areas (such as patients, hospital visitors, persons entering the infected area, etc.). Medical protective clothing has good moisture permeability and barrier, has the function of resisting the penetration of alcohol, blood, body fluid, air dust particles, and bacterial virus, effectively protect the safety of personnel and keep the environment clean.
Medical protective clothing is a combination of hats, tops, and trousers. There are two kinds of medical protective clothing: isolation gown and protective clothing. The main difference between medical protective clothing and isolation gown is that medical protective clothing is more durable than isolation clothing, the protection grade is higher, the protection performance is better, the protection purpose and the protection principle of them are different.
The common materials used in disposable medical protective clothing are polypropylene textile adhesive fabric, new polyester fiber, polymer coated fabric, SMS nonwovens, polyethylene breathable film/nonwoven composite. At present, most of them use polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material to make medical protective clothing, PTFE is a kind of high-performance polymer, which cannot only resist water pressure but also discharge water vapor through micropores.
There are many kinds of coatings for protective fabrics, such as PVC, polyethylene and so on. The waterproof, barrier bacteria of this kind of protective clothing is good, it can be reused, but the moisture permeability is poor and uncomfortable. The high-end laminated fabric is PTFE, super waterproof and moisture permeable composite fabric.

Antimicrobial technology adds a durable defense barrier on fabric, which helps fight odor-causing bacteria, mold and mildew. This makes a product with antimicrobial fabric stay fresher longer so you can wear it with confidence. This lasting, continual protection against potentially harmful microbes lasts wash after wash. The antibacterial fabric stays cleaner for longer and in between washings. If a towel stinks less, you will wash it less because it maintains that just laundered feeling. New energy-efficient washing practices do not get fabrics as clean. Adding antimicrobial product protection reduces the growth of odor-causing microbes that remain on your clothes even after washing.

Your clothing doesn’t just look great. It also absorbs or blocks harmful UV radiation and remains one of the most effective forms of protection against sun damage and skin cancer.
What's more, sun protective clothing is the simplest way to stay safe; unlike sunscreen, you never need to reapply!
Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) indicates how much UV radiation (both UVB and UVA) a fabric allows to reach your skin. For example, a UPF 50 fabric blocks 98 percent of the sun’s rays and allows two percent (1/50th) to penetrate, thus reducing your exposure risk significantly. UPF measures the amount of UV radiation that can penetrate fabric and reach your skin. Sun Protection Factor, or SPF, is based on the time it takes for UV-exposed skin to redden; if you burn after 20 minutes, if used correctly, an SPF 15 sunscreen may protect your skin 15 times longer.

The textile industry is considered the most ecologically harmful industry in the world. The eco-problems in textile industry occur during some production processes and are carried forward right to the finished product. In the production process like bleaching and then dyeing, the subsequent fabric makes a toxin that swells into our ecosystem. During the production process controlling pollution is as vital as making a product free from the toxic effect. The utilization of rayon for clothing has added to the fast depleting forests. Petroleum-based products are harmful to the environment. In order to safeguard our environment from these effects, an integrated pollution control approach is needed. Luckily there is an availability of more substitutes.
Hemp, wool, organic cotton, soy silk, bamboo fabrics, jute, corn fiber, etc are considered eco-friendly fabrics due to their availability from nature without any harmful effects of chemicals or toxins. Moreover, as compared to other synthetic fibers they are available at a cheaper rate.

Clothing has been used for protection since time immemorial, shielding the human body from social, physical and emotional threats. The term protective clothing defines everything used for physical protection of the body.

Today, the array of physical threats is endless and so is the availability of protective wear. It can be worn in any situation to provide protection and make the wearer stand against any hazardous condition. Many individuals with injuries or handicaps use protective clothing to prevent further possible damage.

Clothing psychology and comfort have changed the way people look at protective clothing. Consumers are embracing fashionable protective clothing to participate in sports and adventurous activities. They are ready to risk their life trusting advanced protective wear. On the other hand, protective wear are building trust by boosting the consumer's performance.

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  The relation between shaker screen mesh and the hole diameter
Posted by: buo226 - 09-15-2021, 06:21 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

A shale shaker screen is a vulnerable spare part of a shale shaker. But the shaker screen is very important in the drilling mud recycling system. The shaker screens design and quality determined the separation performance of the shale shaker. Generally speaking, the working environment and the drilling mud contents are the most determining factors to choose a suitable MI-SWACO shaker screen. The other factor is the size of the particle in the drilling mud fluid to be separated. If you know the particle size, so the shaker screen mesh is determined.

What is the shaker screen mesh?
Shaker screen mesh refers to the quantity of holes per square inch. So the Derrick shaker screen mesh has an inverse proportional relation with the hole quantity. That is to say, the larger the shaker screen mesh, the smaller the screen hole size. Commonly speaking, the relation between them is: Mesh x Hole Diameter(micron)=15000
For example, if the shaker screen mesh is 200, then we can estimate that the screen hole diameter is about 75 microns. This is very useful for us to choose the proper shale shaker screen according to the mud fluid contents.
Other shaker screens or you can say shale shaker screens too, are a type of mechanical screen, aim to take solids out or separate solids from drilling fluid (mud). Usually, a composite frame shaker screen is made of stainless steel, polyurethane or composite frame. It is a spare part of a shale shaker and a combined shaker frame by stainless screw and wedge block.
Shale shaker spring is a component that provides a damping effect. The spring quality and feature will help us to get a better process when stopping the shaker. Most of the springs are made of high-quality special spring steel. However, some of the springs or we call it float amount/absorber is made of rubber or combined rubber and steel.

In minerals processing, one of the most important hydrocyclone applications is within closed circuit grinding operations, classifying particles leaving the mill. Incorrect particle classification has a detrimental impact on plant efficiency and can unnecessarily consume circuit capacity.
Feed pellet machines can bring benefits to your poultry farming. Choosing a suitable feed pelletizer machine and using it properly will significantly improve the quality of the feed. It will soon reflect a benign effect in the production process. If you can further master the technology of making animal feed pellets, you can also greatly reduce the cost of materials, thereby increasing profits.

It is agreed upon in the trucking industry that ratchet straps are the most secure way to tie down a heavy load, providing the most strength and security for oversized gear! The best heavy-duty ratchet straps wrap, hook, or clip to your trailer rub rail or D-rings. These tie-down straps tighten using a ratcheting system so you can apply the right amount of pressure over or around your cargo to ensure it will stay firmly in place. Having reliable, high-quality ratchet straps is integral to making sure you deliver your cargo safely and securely!

Are you planning your next overhead lifting project and unsure about the best type of industrial lifing sling to use? Or, maybe you are not getting the service life you would expect out of the slings that you’re currently using? Alloy chain slings, wire rope slings, synthetic slings, and metal mesh slings can all be used to safely and efficiently lift, move, and position a load.
But, choosing the right type of lifting sling is dependent on a complete understanding of the application, the environment it is being used in, and how the sling will be used to support and lift the load. Wire rope is a preferred lifting device for many reasons. Its unique design consists of multiple steel wires that form individual strands laid in a helical pattern around a fiber or steel core. This structure provides strength, flexibility, and the ability to handle bending stresses.

Regardless of the time spent on a roof, the risk of falling is high. Any fall is likely to result in a serious injury. Industrial rope and nets installed below a high-level work area reduce the distance that a worker can fall. They absorb the impact of the fall and provide a soft landing to reduce the likelihood of a person being injured. Safety nets are collective fall arrest systems, not fall restraint systems. That is, they provide passive protection from falls while allowing people to work at height without restricting their movement. A safety rope passes through each mesh around the perimeter of the net and determines the net's overall dimensions.

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