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Posted by: llkktth176 - 11-08-2022, 10:58 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies


Tube Mill Machine Lines produce pipe and tube by taking a continuous strip of material and continuously roll forms it until the edges of the strip meet together at a weld station. At this point, the welding process melts and fuses the edges of the tube together and the material exits the weld station as welded tube. Basic components include an uncoiler, straightener, shear, forming section, fin pass section, welder, ID and/or OD scarfing, sizing section, cut off and stacker or runout table.

Each pass in the various sections are made up of a upper and lower shaft that contains roller die tooling which forms the steel strip gradually into a round shape or square if it is a form square / weld square type of mill. This gradual shaping process is commonly referred to as the flower arrangement.

Tube formed metals can be used in many different industries, such as gas, water and sewage piping, structural, industrial, and scaffolding piping. Additionally, your Carbon Steel Tube Mill Machine can produce hollow, rectangular, round or square piping.

We typically have a few select pieces of machinery available for purchase or can search the marketplace for the piece of equipment that best suits your needs. Our team is ready to help you with the right solution for your business.

With over 60 years of experience and a real focus on customer satisfaction, you can rely on ASP for your next project.

We provide professional renovation and installation services with a real focus on customer satisfaction. We have proven results for setting exceptional standards in cost control, planning, scheduling and project safety. We have experience that gives us a competitive advantage over others in our field.

Galvanized Tube Mill Machines produce pipe and tube by taking a continuous strip of material and continuously rollforming until the edges of the strip meet together at a weld station. At this point the welding process melts and fuses the edges of the tube together and the material exits the weld station as welded tube. Basic components include an uncoiler, straightener, shear, forming section, fin pass section, welder, ID and/or OD scarfing, sizing section, cut off and stacker or runout table.

Each pass in the various sections are made up of a upper and lower shaft that contains roller die tooling which forms the steel strip gradually into a round shape or square if it is a form square / weld square type of mill. This gradual shaping process is commonly referred to as the flower arrangement.
ASP can provide you a turn-key solution for all your New, remanufactured and used tube mill needs.

Tube Mill Components operator face a variety of challenges every day in their effort to produce high-quality tubing in a cost-effective and productive way.

This article examines some of the typical problems producers encounter, some common causes of these problems, and some ideas for how to solve these problems.

Lost Mill Time During Operation and Changeovers

Often, excessive downtime during normal operation or tooling/job changeover can be attributed to one or more of the following causes:

1. No written procedures for setup. Every mill should have written procedures for all operators to follow. The machine, tooling, and steel are fixed factors in the mill setup equation; the only variable is the human factor. This is why it is so important to have written procedures in place to control the process. Written procedures also provide a tool for troubleshooting when problems arise.

2. No setup chart. Tweaking the Cold Rolling Mill during setup loses valuable setup time. Operators must work the tooling the way it was designed. This means setting up to the parameters of a setup chart.

3. Lack of formal training. Formal training helps operators perform the procedures for tube mill operation and maintenance and ensures that all operators are on the same track.

4. Disregard of parameters from previous setup. If the tube mill has been set up according to the written procedures and setup chart, the operator can write down the numbers from the digital readout on the single-point adjustment (SPA) unit, allowing the next operator to set up where the first left off. Setting up to the numbers can save as much as 75 percent of total setup time, as long as all the other tips discussed in this article are followed.

5. Mill in poor condition. A poorly maintained mill costs valuable time and scrap during setup and operation. The mill must be dependable so that the operator is not chasing mechanical problems during normal operation and setup. A good maintenance program, as well as rebuilds or upgrades when necessary, is essential.

6. Mill in misalignment. Tube mill misalignment, poor mill condition, and inaccurate setup account for 95 percent of all problems in tube production. Most mills should be aligned at least once a year.

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  Effect of a herbal extract powder
Posted by: llkktth176 - 11-08-2022, 10:57 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Effect of a herbal extract powder

Effect of a herbal extract powder
In the manufacture of herbal medicinal tablets, dried plant extracts are employed as the therapeutic ingredient. These powders, usually obtained by spray drying, are typically hygroscopic and possess poor flow and compactability for the manufacture of tablets by direct compression (DC). Besides, spray-drying operating conditions and liquid feed composition are reported to be dependent on the herbal medicine. Consequently, the production of dried extracts implies long new product development times. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to: (a) provide recommendations as initial production point of fruit powder suitable for DC by spray drying and (b) study the powder properties to identify those that are affected by the extract nature. Particularly, a unique set of operating conditions was found to be appropriate to produce powders of seven different medicinal plant extracts. In fact, all the spray-dried products showed adequate flowability, stability and compactability.

Powders properties, as particle size and morphology, moisture content, hygroscopicity, flowability and compact hardness were not a function of the type of herb. Conversely, the process yield and glass transition temperature, particle and bulk densities, powder composition, compact porosity, wetting and disintegration times were found to be dependent on the chemical nature of the herbs.

Graphical abstract

A single set of spray-drying operating conditions and a unique liquid feed formulation are proposed to process different aqueous medicinal extracts in order to obtain powders with adequate flowability, stability and compactability.

Fermented plant extract (FPE) is a kind of plant functional food fermented by various microorganisms to make a beverage or other physical forms. To provide technical support for the industrial production of gynostemma extract powder, the quality characteristics of fermented plant extract prepared by hot air-drying, spray drying, vacuum microwave drying, and freeze-drying are compared for an FPE product. The effects of maltodextrin, soluble starch, and β-cyclodextrin as a drying agent on drying effect were studied. Results show that spray-dried FPE powder has the highest bulk density, the smallest average particle size, while the vegetable powder produced by freeze-drying has the best color and flavor, the highest content of key components including total sugar, soluble protein, vitamin C, total polyphenol content, and highest antioxidant capacity.

Nature has always been, and still is, a source of foods and ingredients that are beneficial to human health. Nowadays, plant extracts are increasingly becoming important additives in the food industry due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that delay the development of off-flavors and improve the shelf life and color stability of food products. Due to their natural origin, they are excellent candidates to replace synthetic compounds, which are generally considered to have toxicological and carcinogenic effects. The efficient extraction of these compounds from their natural sources, along with the determination of their activity in the commercialized products, have been great challenges for researchers and food chain contributors to develop products with positive effects on human health. The objective of this Special Issue is to highlight the existing evidence regarding the various potential benefits of the consumption of plant extracts and plant extract-based products, with emphasis on in vivo works and epidemiological studies, the application of plant extracts to improve shelf-life, the nutritional and health-related properties of foods, and the extraction techniques that can be used to obtain bioactive compounds from plant extracts.

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Obesity is a condition involving excessive accumulation of body fat that may impair health. The global prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically, increasing more than 2-fold since 1980. In 2014, over 1.9 billion adults worldwide were overweight, of which more than 600 million were estimated to be obese [1]. Obesity contributes to the development of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and stroke, as well as overall mortality [2]. Obesity also leads to an increase in socioeconomic burden. The total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults in 2005 were estimated to be approximately US$1.8 billion, equivalent to 3.7% of the national health care expenditure for that year [3]. Hammond et al. [4] suggested that the total annual economic costs associated with obesity in the United States are in excess of US$ 215 billion. Development and implementation of cost-effective interventions for obesity prevention and management are essential to reduce the huge economic burden of obesity [5].

Treatment of obese patients requires a multifaceted approach, including dietary therapy, regular physical activity, behavioral therapy, and/or pharmacotherapy [6]. Comprehensive lifestyle intervention is foundational to obesity management, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy may be considered for individuals who are unable to achieve or maintain weight loss with comprehensive lifestyle intervention and have a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2, or ≥27 kg/m2 with comorbidity [7]. Although the addition of weight loss medications to a lifestyle modification intervention can help obese individuals achieve greater weight loss, their body weight can rebound if they stop taking the medications. Since the withdrawal of sibutramine in 2010 because of the risk of serious cardiovascular adverse events, concerns about the safety of anti-obesity medications have led to a steady decline in prescription and use of these medications [8]. Due to the high costs, serious complications, and limited duration of effectiveness of anti-obesity drugs, there has been growing interest in and use of relatively inexpensive, safe, and effective functional food products from natural sources that are capable of aiding weight loss [9, 10].

Plants are considered good natural sources of bioactive compounds with potential anti-obesity properties [11, 12]. These plant-derived anti-obesity compounds induce weight loss through various mechanisms, including regulating lipid metabolism, suppressing food intake, and stimulating energy expenditure [10, 11]. However, there is still a paucity of data on the efficacy and safety of herbal plant preparations in obesity treatment. In order to provide obese patients with accurate and reliable information about effective and safe natural anti-obesity agents, there is a need for high-quality studies on the efficacy and safety of natural herbal products that claim to exert a weight reducing effect [13, 14]. In Korea, it is possible for a health functional food with body fat reducing effects to be approved for use after review, by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, of results of a clinical trial on the efficacy and safety of the product [15].

YY-312 is a acer truncatum bunge extract from Imperata cylindrical Beauvois, Citrus unshiu Markovich, Evodia officinalis Dode [16]. These plants have been commonly used as medicinal herbs in Korea, and have been reported to have health promoting effects, including reduction of body fat. Evodiamine, a major alkaloidal compound extracted from Evodia officinalis Dode, was thought to elicit anti-obesity effects through uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) thermogenesis, but it was also suggested to have the potential to prevent obesity by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation through stimulating the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway [17]. Citrus unshiu Markovich, the peel of immature citrus fruit in the Rutaceae family, is known to have plenty of flavonoids [18]. Citrus peel extracts have been reported to exert an anti-obesity effect through the promotion of β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue [19]. Imperata cylindrical Beauvois, the root of cogongrass in the Poaceae family, is known to have potent anti-oxidant activity due to its abundant polyphenols [20].

A previous study showed that YY-312 has an anti-obesity effect in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and that it suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells [16]. However, it can be ascertained only through human clinical trials whether the individual ingredients in YY-312 have a synergistic effect in the human body, or whether their interactions augment toxicity. Hence, this randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of YY-312 for body fat reduction in overweight Korean adults.

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  Nuts, bolts, screws, and washers
Posted by: llkktth176 - 11-08-2022, 10:55 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Nuts, bolts, screws, and washers

Nuts, bolts, screws, and washers

This chapter starts with tips on drawing hexagon nuts and hex bolts and comprehensively covers, using illustrations, tables of size and explanations on usage, the majority of metric fixings and fasteners used in engineering today i.e. screws of the Hexagon Socket type such as Cap Head Screws, Shoulder Screws, Button Head Screws, Countersunk Head Screws and Set Screws. Machine Screws such as Phillips and Slotted Pan Head, Countersunk and Raised Countersunk Head, Slotted Cheese Head are also included as are Machine Screw Nuts, Wing Nuts and Locking and Retaining Devices such as Slotted Nuts and Castle Nuts Simmonds Locknut, Spring Washers, Shakeproof Washers, Wire Locking, Tab Washers, Locking Plates, Taper and Parallel Pins, Split Cotter Pins, locking by Adhesives and Peening. Finally thread cutting screws are covered with recommendations on installation.

A bolt, as you may recall, is a parallel-sided shaft with an inclined plane or helical groove wrapped around it. A screw bolt is similar except that its sides are tapered, not parallel. Alternatively, one could say that a screw is cone shaped while a bolt is cylindrical. This fine distinction between a bolt and a screw is not appreciated by most people, who might believe that screws are little fasteners tightened with a screwdriver while bolts are larger fasteners tightened with a wrench. No matter how you view them, bolts and screws have much in common. Both stretch a bit while being tightened, both spread the load over several threads, and both will break if over tightened. Screws, however, unlike bolts, cut their own mating thread as they are tightened. This is a key difference from a bolt, which must have a machine-threaded mating hole. Furthermore, repeated removal and reinsertion will cause the screw hole to become just a bit larger in diameter. After too many cycles, the hole no longer fits the screw (sometimes termed hole "wearout") and we must employ some remediation technique—see "Remediating Hole 'Wearout'."

Screws are often categorized in terms of application (wood, sheet metal, drywall, concrete, etc.); head configuration; and sometimes (when it's uncommon) driving method. Button-head sheet metal, roundhead wood, flathead drywall, and TORX-head cabinet screws are but a few common examples. Head descriptions such as pan, button, truss, and oval confuse most people, and for good reason. Each description evokes different mind pictures for different people—my pan probably isn't shaped like your pan, and would that be a saucepan or a sauté pan? What is a "fillister" and what does it look like, and just what exactly is a cabinet screw anyway?

You likely know the two main screw driving types—slotted and Phillips—but there are many others out there. Besides a number of Phillips-lookalikes, screw manufacturers have devised other slot designs that facilitate assembly line operations or prevent tampering by keeping unauthorized individuals from gaining access to the interior of equipment. While the Phillips-design screw and driver combination purposely allows the driver to slip out under high torque conditions to prevent over tightening, other similar styles such as the Pozidriv and the Reed & Prince (also known as the "Frearson") screw drive have a slightly different shape, designed not to slip out under high torque conditions. Both are more likely to shear the screw head off than allow the driver to slip out of the screw head. The same holds true for the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) screw that is commonly found in Japanese-manufactured equipment.

Other drive styles include the TORX, Hex (or "Allen"), Robertson, Square, Tri-Wing, Torq-Set, Spanner, and Clutch Types "A" and "G." Many of us who work on our own automobiles or computers are familiar with the TORX drive's six-rounded-point star pattern. Both the Robertson (used primarily in Canada) and Square (the American clone) drive screws are similar in appearance, but the Robertson head has a slight wedge shape, allowing the driver to hold the screw horizontally or even downward without it falling off the driver. The Square-drive head is not tapered, and is therefore slightly larger than the driver, thus making it more likely to strip or round-out than the Canadian original. Tri-Wing screws, with their triangular slotted configuration like a three-lobe Phillips design, are used by some video game manufacturers to hide their inner workings from curious eyes, but are rarely found on medical equipment. Spanner heads are frequently seen in elevators securing the control panel in the elevator's cab. Both Tri-Wing and Spanner designs are meant to be tamper-resistant due to their unique head design and rarity of drivers. Clutch Type "A" screws resemble a bow tie and were commonly used to secure body panels on General Motors vehicles during the 1940s and 1950s. The Clutch Type "G," commonly used in the manufacture of mobile homes and recreational vehicles, looks like a butterfly.

For the do-it-yourselfer at home (which many biomeds are, whether it is building cabinetry or working on cars), there are several techniques to remediate hole wearout. I don't, however, recommend employing any of these on the job in critical or load-bearing applications for obvious reasons!

The most common technique when faced with hole wearout is to simply use a larger screw. This is not always advisable—some would object to the appearance of a single larger screw in a row of screws, thus requiring the replacement of all screws and the need to enlarge all the other holes as well. Other times, the mating material is too thin to use a larger diameter screw with its wider thread. Fortunately, if one is working with wood, shimming the hole with wood (flat toothpicks work well for this) and glue works in most cases. Metal is another story, however. Sometimes you can shim the hole with a dab of epoxy, using the screw to cut threads in the glue until it is in its plastic state, then removing the screw while the epoxy completes hardening. If one is very careful, a nut can be glued (cyanoacrylic adhesives are good for this) to the backside of the oversize mating hole and a so-called "machine screw" be used in place of the original screw. If one has access to the blind side, a nut and "machine screw" might be used in place of the original screw. In desperation, resort to any of a number of specialty devices intended to mount sheet metal and provide a captured machine screw joint.

"Tamper-resistant" or "security-head" screws are usually variants of the common designs. A supposed tamper-resistant version of the TORX screw includes a small pin in the center recess to prevent using a slotted or Phillips screwdriver, or even a common TORX drive, which can be purchased at a hardware store. The downside of this tamper-resistant design is the ease with which the pin can be removed with a pair of needle-nose pliers or a hand-held grinder. Variants feature sloping edges so that the screw can be driven in, but the bit slips out when trying to remove the screw. A third type of security or tamper-resistant design features unusual proprietary designs mating with drivers only available from the screw manufacturer and only sold to registered owners. These types of screws are not popular with medical equipment manufacturers, and biomeds seldom run across them. When we do, we have several courses of action to follow:

Purchase the tool from the medical equipment manufacturer.

Attempt to buy the appropriate tool from the screw manufacturer (generally the organization's purchase order or a letter request on letterhead is sufficient to prove that the purchase is not for a nefarious purpose).

Have the appropriate tool fabricated by a local machine shop.

Grind or chisel the head off, use a screw extractor to remove the remains, and then replace it with a more common screw. (If some measure of security is desired, use a tamper-resistant TORX screw in its place.)

Screws, washers, and other fastening hardware are made from a wide range of materials. Steel is the most common, but special applications call for other metals more suited to the environment. Copper, brass, and bronze are most commonly used in damp or submerged applications where rusting cannot be tolerated. Where higher physical strength and rust resistance is required, a nickel-base alloy, corrosion resisting (a.k.a. "stainless") steel, or titanium is used. Plastics such as nylon or Teflon are used when moderate strength is needed and absolutely no rust or fluid interaction can be tolerated. Where electrolytic action (from the mating of different metals) is a concern, fasteners are either made of the same material as the metals being joined—aluminum instead of steel, for example—or of plastic. Where electrical insulation is required, plastic fasteners are most commonly used.


Washers were originally used for three purposes—to spread the compressive load or anchoring pressure over a larger load-bearing area, to relieve friction, or to prevent leakage. Common flat washers are, as the name implies, a flat disk, usually round and with a hole in the middle, made of metal, plastic, rubber, or leather. Their thickness allows the relatively small diameter head of a fastener, such as a screw or small bolt, to spread its compressive force over a larger diameter (approximately that of the washer's outside diameter) thus reducing stress at the edges of the mounting hole. For example, a printed circuit board could be fastened to a standoff with a screw and a flat washer. The washer spreads the pressure of the screw over a larger area than just the screw head, thus preventing the board from cracking. "Thrust washers" absorb friction between shaft-mounted components by acting as an intermediate or buffer piece between two rotating parts. Thrust washers are often used inside motors and in linear mechanical assemblies as spacers. Washers used as seals around immersion heaters and in water lines are familiar to just about every biomed in the field.

Over time, washers have evolved from the three basic types to a plethora of designs for a number of common and unique purposes. The most commonly encountered include four types of lockwashers (split, internal tooth, external tooth, and spring); fender washers; trim washers; and square washers. The split lockwasher, as the name implies, looks like a regular flat washer made of spring metal (usually a steel) with a cut from the center to the perimeter. The ends of the cut appear to have been bent apart in an up-and-down fashion. (Note: If the ends appear to be opposite each other, without a distinct bend in the washer, discard the washer and use a new one.) As the washer is compressed, the ends are slightly wedged into the fastener (usually a screw, bolt, or nut) and the item being fastened (like a cover or a clamp) to prevent the fastener from unscrewing under vibration. Internal and external tooth lockwashers are similar in that they have teeth pointing either toward or away from (respectively) the center hole and spread their compressive force in the same direction that the teeth point. When compressed, the teeth grab both parts being compressed to prevent the fastener from unscrewing. The last type of lockwasher is the spring washer. Spring washers are formed in an irregular shape, usually wavy, so that it acts like a spring when compressed. The resultant pressure prevents (within the limits of its design) the fastener from unscrewing. Biomeds often will encounter thrust and spring washers on the same rotating shaft, with the spring washer providing a fairly constant tension to eliminate rattle, take up slack, reduce play to a tolerable level, and/or to provide a controlled reaction to intermittent shock. Some commonly found biomed applications include clutch assemblies, air compressors, and some portable x-ray unit drive trains.

A fender washer is an oversized flat washer, distinguished by its relatively large diameter compared to the hole at the center. These washers spread their compressive force over a larger area than a common washer does and are especially useful in preventing cracking when securing plastic parts with smallish screws. Trim washers appear in a variety of forms, all of which provide a "finished" look in final assembly. By design, trim (or finishing) washers blend well with both their fastener and surroundings. They provide a smooth and eye-appealing transition between a screw and a panel. Often a trim washer, a cabinet screw (a screw with a hole in its top designed to hold a plastic cap piece), and its cap form an "inconspicuous" fastening system in consumer-assembled furniture such as bookcases, entertainment centers, and chests of drawers. Square washers can be used in special applications where round hardware would inappropriate or unusable, such as a corner application.

Armed with this basic knowledge of fastener design, terminology, and application, the biomed is now able to better select the correct fastener for the application. By the way, about that "panhead" screwhead—I think it looks more like a rounded sauté pan than a saucepan.

Author notes

Robert Dondelinger, CBET-E, MS, is the medical equipment manager at the U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command in North Chicago, IL. An internationally certified biomedical electronics technician, he entered the U.S. Army in 1970 and retired from active duty in 2002.

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  Intraoperative Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring and the Potential Pitfalls
Posted by: llkktth176 - 11-08-2022, 10:54 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Intraoperative Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring and the Potential Pitfalls

Intraoperative Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring and the Potential Pitfalls
Invasive intraarterial blood pressure measurement is currently the gold standard for intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring but accurate systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement is difficult in everyday clinical practice, mostly because of problems with hyper-resonance or damping within the measurement system, which can lead to erroneous treatment decisions if these phenomena are not recognized. A hyper-resonant blood pressure trace significantly overestimates true systolic blood pressure while underestimating the diastolic pressure. Invasively measured systolic blood pressure is also significantly more affected than mean blood pressure by the site of measurement within the arterial system. Patients in the intraoperative period should be treated based on the invasively measured mean blood pressure rather than the systolic blood pressure. In this review, we discuss the pros/cons, mechanisms of Disposable IBP Transducers, and the interpretation of the invasively measured systolic blood pressure value.

Introduction & Background

Disposable IBP Transducer Kit-Single Channel is the gold standard of arterial pressure measurement in 10-20% of high-risk patients [1-2]. In the remaining 80%-90% of surgical patients, the standard intermittent non-invasive blood pressure (BP) that is obtained using oscillometry with a brachial cuff has been shown to have only poor agreement with IBP in critically ill patients [3-4]. These observed measurement differences are clinically significant because they would have triggered a change in treatment in as many as 20% of the critical care patients. Non-invasive oscillometric BP measurement with a brachial cuff tends to, on average, overestimate BP during hypotension and underestimate BP during hypertension, with a significant bias and considerable scatter. Invasive BP measurement with an arterial catheter, providing continuous BP measurements, detected nearly twice as many episodes of hypotension as intermittent oscillometric measurements with a brachial cuff [5]. Continuous rather than intermittent hemodynamic monitoring is highly desirable in high-risk patients. Even when continuous BP monitoring was accomplished in medium-risk patients with non-invasive techniques, the number of episodes of intraoperative hypotension was still reduced by half when compared to intermittent monitoring with a brachial cuff [6]. Although non-invasive continuous monitoring has fewer complications than arterial cannulation, it has not yet Disposable IBP Transducer Kit-Double Channel as the gold standard in high-risk patients, but rather serves as an alternative in low and medium-risk patients where IBP measurements are not warranted [7].

An adequate blood pressure level is a means to achieve the ultimate goal of the circulation, which is adequate end-organ perfusion and tissue oxygenation. Adequate organ perfusion is mostly regulated locally, in the organs, by changing the local vascular resistance, which, when seen over multiple organs and the entire circulation, works as a re-distribution of the total flow or cardiac output (CO) [8]. In addition, the total flow or CO is also regulated centrally if this re-distribution is not enough. The local flow control via regulation of resistance of the arterioles only functions properly under the condition of adequate perfusion pressure, in which the mean systemic arterial pressure plays a central role. Continuous monitoring of local organ circulation, global flow, or CO and arterial pressure is, therefore, the key. Monitoring the microcirculation has been shown to be useful when determining the optimal BP range that is associated with adequate regulation of local blood flow and tissue oxygenation for an individual patient [9-10]. Pulse contour analysis provides a means of assessing global flow or CO because it has long been recognized that an apparently adequate BP level may not necessarily be associated with an adequate total blood flow to all the tissues [11-12]. Different organs have a different range of perfusion pressures that allow for adequate local control of organ flow. While the coronary circulation can increase flow fivefold as long as heart rate is maintained at 70 bpm, diastolic arterial pressure is maintained at adequate levels and coronary obstructive lesions are absent, the kidney is much more sensitive to decreases in perfusion pressure [13]. The average lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in normotensive adult humans is around a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 70 mmHg [14]. Hence, the heart has a greater range of adequate perfusion pressures than both the brain and the kidneys. Blood pressure goals as adequate perfusion pressure ranges, therefore, need to be specifically determined and adjusted for every individual clinical situation by considering the patient's specific comorbidities as well as the planned surgical procedure.

Blood pressure and surgical outcomes 

Although the real target is adequate total blood flow and adequate local flow to individual organs, most outcome data are available for blood pressure. Hypotension has been associated with increased postoperative morbidity. Even short durations of intraoperative MAP less than 55 mmHg are associated with myocardial injury and acute kidney injury (AKI) [15]. A perioperative quality initiative consensus statement also concluded that even brief durations of systolic arterial pressure <100 mmHg and mean arterial pressure <60-70 mmHg are harmful during non-cardiac surgery even without prospective studies [16]. Patients with preoperative hypertension may be more susceptible to complications from perioperative hypotension [17]. In contrast to hypotension, the degree of hypertension that is associated with harm to the patient is more difficult to define. In adult non-cardiac surgical patients, there is insufficient evidence to recommend a general upper limit of arterial pressure at which therapy should be initiated, although systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 160 mmHg has been associated with myocardial injury and infarction [18].

How is IBP measured?

Disposable IBP Transducer Kit-Triple Channel, in essence, replaces a small part of the wall of an artery with a stiff membrane inside a pressure transducer. To achieve this, it requires the cannulation of an artery with a stiff short catheter and the use of a short and stiff tube to connect the cannula to the transducer. In order to measure pressure, a hydrostatic reference level needs to be defined - usually, this is the level of the right atrium - and the transducer needs to be kept at the correct reference level all the time. Each component of the measurement system - transducer, hydrostatic leveling, cannula, tubing - will introduce inaccuracies or measurement errors.


The transducer nowadays is almost always a disposable pressure transducer, which is factory-calibrated by the manufacturer. The accuracy of the disposable transducers typically is better than the accuracy required of less than ±3% or ±3 mmHg by the International Organization for Standardization/American National Standards Institution (ISO/ANSI) standard [19-20]. It needs to be zeroed, and since transducers are prone to baseline drift, this should be performed at regular intervals. In terms of quantitative error, these effects will cause a small bias of less than 3 mmHg, which is not clinically relevant in routine patient monitoring but should be considered in research or validation studies.


The pressure transducer should be placed at heart level; by convention, this is set at the level of the right atrium. A leveling error of 10 cm will cause a measurement error of 7.4 mmHg. In clinical practice, a mean error of 3 mmHg with a standard deviation of 2 mmHg has been reported [21-22]. Again, this is probably not clinically relevant in routine patient monitoring but to be considered in research or validation studies. A more unpredictable component of leveling error is in the position changes of the operating table (rotation, tilting) where it may be difficult to maintain the proper reference position at the right atrium. It will certainly add to the overall error and is hard to quantify.

Resonance and damping

The combined system of cannula, tubing, and transducer can be seen as a second-order transmission line that guides the intra-arterial pulse wave to the transducer membrane [23-24]. This second-order system can be characterized by its natural or resonance frequency and its damping factor [25-26]. The natural frequency of the measurement system must exceed the frequency range of the arterial pulse, which extends to 20-25 Hz [23,27] or 20-22 harmonics when the goal is to accurately determine the maximum rate of pressure during isovolumetric contraction (dP/dtmax) of the systolic upstroke [28]. Higher natural frequencies can be obtained by making the cannula and the connective tubing shorter, wider, and stiffer [23,29-30]. The systems also exhibit damping, caused by friction and the viscosity of the filling fluid. Critical damping is the amount of damping required to prevent overshoot. The damping coefficient of a critically damped system is 1, however, this results in a relatively slow responding system. A damping coefficient of 0.64, sometimes called optimal damping, provides a good compromise between responsiveness and distortion. In theory, with such a damping coefficient, the amplitude is accurately measured up to 2/3 of the natural frequency, within 2%, and only shows a distortion of 6% at the natural frequency. In clinical practice, however, natural frequencies ranging from 12 to 25 Hz and damping coefficients ranging from 0.12 to 0.33 are observed [21,23,26,31-33], indicating that in clinical practice, the system is often underdamped with resonance frequencies in the same range as the frequency content of the pressure signal. An artificial increase in IBP has also been observed when the three-way stopcock is in an off-center position. On the other side, blood clots, kinking in the cannula, clamping of the arterial line tubing [34], air bubbles in the tubing, or narrow, long, or compliant tubing can cause the system to be over-damped, with damping coefficients larger than the critical damping. Whenever a dampened trace is encountered in clinical practice, the cause should be investigated. Damping will result in under-reading of SBP and dP/dtmax and over-reading of diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In under-damped situations, SBP average over-estimation was as large as 28.5 ±15.9 (mean±SD) mmHg [26] where the large scatter could be caused by the error varying with frequency and heart rate. Even adequate systems according to the criteria proposed by Gardner [35] showed an SBP over-estimation of 2.6±1.9 (mean±SD) mmHg [33].

Physicians need to be aware that especially the invasively measured SBP may be inaccurate in a significant number of patients and pay attention to the shape of the arterial blood pressure waveform due to damping and resonance phenomena. Wrong and potentially harmful therapeutic intervention may be undertaken by health care providers who have not been trained to recognize these resonances and damping artifacts because they will misinterpret the SBP value displayed on the monitor as the real SBP [25]. The BP waveform is a complex amalgamation of both antegrade and retrograde (reflected) pressure waves and is affected by vascular compliance, distance from the left ventricle (LV), and the 3D structure of the vascular tree [31]. The MAP is easier to measure accurately because it is less affected by damping and resonance than SBP and DBP. An under-damped, hyper-resonant trace, for example, overestimates while a damped trace underestimates SBP (Figure 1). The MAP is not significantly affected by these phenomena and is essentially the same for both traces.

Problems occur in clinical practice when a hyper-resonant IBP Transducer Core Part trace overestimates the SBP and a surgeon decides, for example, to limit the SBP to 100 mmHg when the patient is separating from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). If there is insufficient damping in the system, the measured SBP will be 100 mmHg while the MAP at the same time may be too low to provide adequate coronary perfusion. The patient may then have to be placed back urgently and perhaps unnecessarily onto CPB due to the erroneous overestimation of the SBP as a result of this hyperresonance artifact. The effects of resonance and damping must therefore be carefully considered whenever making treatment decisions based on the SBP. If the trace looks hyper-resonant or over-damped, the treatment decisions should be based on the MAP. If clinicians insist on making treatment decisions based on SBP then the damping within the measurement system must first be optimized before it is safe to use SBP to guide therapy.&nbsp;

The industry has recognized this potential for SBP to be overestimated as a major problem and is evaluating filtering methods for acquiring radial intra-artery BP waveforms [32]. Determining the natural frequency and damping factor of the IBP measurement system for each individual patient is, however, widely regarded as too cumbersome to find acceptance in routine clinical practice. This rather labor-intensive process is mandatory in research and validation studies that seek to measure SBP accurately [32]. Algorithms that identify erroneous invasively measured BP readings have also been developed [33].

Increasing the damping of a catheter-manometer system by adding a small air bubble, while increasing damping, also alters the elastic properties of the system and decreases the natural frequency, which is undesirable [35]. A method proposed by Gardner [36] to increase the damping coefficient without decreasing the natural frequency is to add a fluid-mechanical stub device containing a sealed air bubble. One of the commercial devices using this principle, the Resonance OverShoot Eliminator (ROSE) device, has been shown to increase the average damping coefficient from 0.2 to 0.8 while not reducing the natural frequency [37]. These devices, however, never were broadly adopted in clinical practice. A simple setup involving a syringe with a small air bubble in communication with the arterial line allows for the dampening of a hyper-resonant system in clinical practice (Figure 2).

Cannulation of the radial or dorsalis pedis arteries are the preferred sites of measuring IBP because the palmar and plantar arches allow for collateral blood flow to the hand and foot. This is of great importance whenever the cannulated artery develops thrombosis, usually after the arterial catheter has been in situ for a long period of time. The radial and dorsalis pedis monitoring locations protect the limb that is invasively monitored from potential ischemic damage. Patients with scleroderma should not be monitored with a radial arterial line because of a greatly increased risk of ischemic damage [38]. Brachial artery cannulation has recently gained in popularity especially in cardiac surgery and some studies have documented a low incidence of ischemic problems with this approach [39]. However, there are some reports of ischemic injuries associated with brachial arterial lines [40-41]. On the other hand, femoral artery cannulation has been associated with higher infection risk than other sites as well as pseudoaneurysm formation [42-43]. SBP tends to increase when measured at an increasing distance from the heart [44]. The site of arterial cannulation along the vascular tree is an important determinant of SBP [45-46]. A dorsalis pedis arterial line will typically show a higher SBP than a radial line, which in turn will measure a higher SBP than a femoral arterial line (Figure 3).

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  Understanding Laser Cutting
Posted by: llkktth176 - 11-08-2022, 10:53 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Understanding Laser Cutting

Laser cutting is a fabrication process which employs a focused, high-powered laser beam to cut material into custom shapes and designs. This process is suitable for a wide range of materials, including metal, plastic, wood, gemstone, glass, and paper, and can produce precise, intricate, and complex parts without the need for custom-designed tooling.

There are several different types of laser cutting available, including fusion cutting, oxidation cutting, and scribing. Each laser cutting process can produce parts with precision, accuracy, and high-quality edge finishes, and with generally less material contamination, physical damage, and waste than with other conventional cutting processes, such as mechanical cutting and waterjet cutting. However, while laser cutting demonstrates certain advantages over more conventional cutting processes, some manufacturing applications can be problematic, such as cutting reflective material or material requiring secondary machining and finishing work. The requirements and specifications demanded by a particular cutting application—e.g., materials and their properties, energy and power consumption limits, secondary finishing, etc.—help determine the type of cutting process most suitable for use.

While each cutting process has its advantages and disadvantages, this article focuses on laser cutting, outlining the basics of the laser cutting process and the necessary components and mechanics of the CNC laser cutting machine. Additionally, the article explores various laser cutting methods and applications, the benefits and limitations of the process, and comparisons between laser cutting and other types of cutting processes.&nbsp;&nbsp;

The Laser Cutting Machine and Process

Laser cutting is a non-contact, thermal-based fabrication process suitable for metal and non-metal materials. For the laser cutting process to run smoothly and at optimum capacity, several factors should be taken into consideration, such as the flatbed CNC laser cutting machine's configuration and settings, the material being cut and its properties, and the type of laser and assist gas employed.

Stimulated Emission: The photons that are produced by spontaneous emission travel within the medium, which is contained in a cavity of the laser resonator between two mirrors. One mirror is reflective to keep photons traveling within the medium, so they continue to propagate stimulated emissions, and the other mirror is partially transmissive to allow some photons to escape. Stimulated emission is the process in which a photon (i.e., the incident photon) stimulates an atom that is already at a higher energy level. This interaction forces the stimulated atom to drop to its ground state by emitting a second photon of the same fixed wavelength or coherent with the incident photon.

The process of one photon propagating the emission of another photon amplifies the strength and intensity of the light beam. Thus the stimulated emission of light photons (i.e., a type of electromagnetic radiation) causes the amplification of light; in other words, light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Improperly aligned photons within the resonator pass through the partially transmissive mirror without being reflected into the medium, generating the initial laser beam. Once generated, the beam enters the laser cutting head and is directed by mirrors into the focusing lens.

Beam Focusing

The focusing lens focuses the laser beam through the center of the nozzle at the end of the laser cutting head incident to the workpiece's surface. By focusing the beam, the lens concentrates the beam's energy into a smaller spot, which increases the beam's intensity (I).&nbsp;

Where P represents the power of the initial laser beam, and πr2 represents the cross-sectional area of the beam. As the lens focuses the laser beam, the radius ® of the beam decreases; this decrease in radius reduces the cross-sectional area of the beam, which in turn increases its intensity since its power is now distributed across a smaller area.

Localized Heating and Melting, and Material Ejection&nbsp;

As the beam strikes the material's surface, the material absorbs the radiation, increasing the internal energy and generating heat. The high intensity of the laser beam allows it to heat, melt, and partially or completely vaporize a localized area of the workpiece's surface. The weakening and removal of the affected area of the material forms the desired cuts. Siphoned into the laser cutting head and flowing coaxially to the focused beam, the assist gas—also referred to as the cutting gas—is used to protect and cool the focusing lens, and may be used to expel melted material out of the kerf—the width of the material removed and of the cut produced—and support the cutting process. Laser cutting employs several different types of material cutting and removal mechanisms, including fusion cutting, chemical degradation cutting, evaporation cutting, scribing, and oxidation cutting.

Fusion Cutting: Also referred to as inert gas melt shearing or inert gas cutting, fusion cutting is employed by CO2 and Nd:YAG laser cutting machines. The laser beam produced by the cutting machine melts the workpiece, and melted material is expelled through the bottom of the kerf by a jet of the assist gas employed. The assist gas and the assist gas pressure employed are dependent on the type of material being cut, but the inert gas is always chosen based on its lack of chemical reactivity in regards to the material. This mechanism is suitable for laser cutting most metals and thermoplastics.

Chemical Degradation: Chemical degradation is employed by high end laser cutting machine and is suitable for laser cutting thermoset polymers and organic material, such as wood. As thermoset and organic materials do not melt when heat is applied, the laser beam burns the material instead, reducing it to carbon and smoke.

Evaporation Cutting: Evaporation cutting is employed by CO2 laser cutting machines and is suitable for materials such as laser cutting acrylic and polyacetal due to the closeness of their melting and boiling points. Since the laser evaporates material evaporates along the cut, the edge produced is generally glossy and polished.

Scribing: Scribing is employed by CO2 and Nd:YAG laser cutting machines to produce partial or fully penetrating grooves or perforations, usually on ceramics or silicon chips. These grooves and perforations allow for mechanical breaking along the weakened structural lines.

Oxidation Cutting: Also referred to as flame oxygen cutting, oxidation cutting is employed by CO2 and Nd:YAG laser cutting machines and is suitable for laser cutting of mild and carbon steel. Oxidation cutting is one example of the reactive gas melt shearing cutting mechanism, which specifically employs chemically reactive assist gases. As with inertness, the reactivity of an assist gas is relative to the material being cut. Oxidation cutting, as the name implies, employs oxygen as the assist gas, which exothermically reacts with the material. The heat generated accelerates the cutting process and produces an oxidized melted edge which can be easily removed by a gas jet to allow for a cleaner, laser-cut edge.

Beam Movement

Once the localized heating, melting, or vaporizing has started, the machine moves the area of material removal across the workpiece to produce the full cut. The machine achieves the movement either by adjusting the reflective mirrors, controlling the laser cutting head, or manipulating the workpiece. There are three different configurations for low power laser cutting machine, defined by the way in which the laser beam moves or is moved over the material: moving material, flying optics, and hybrid laser cutting systems.

Moving Material: Moving material laser cutting machines feature a stationary laser beam and a movable cutting surface to which the material is affixed. The workpiece is mechanically moved around the stationary beam to produce the necessary cuts. This configuration allows for a uniform and consistent standoff distance and requires fewer optical components.

Flying Optics: Flying optics laser cutting machines feature a movable laser cutter head and a stationary workpiece. The cutting head moves the beam across the stationary workpiece in the X- and Y-axes to produce the necessary cuts. The flexibility of flying optics machines is suitable for cutting materials with variable thickness and sizes, as well as allowing for faster processing times. However, since the beam is continually moving, the changing beam length has to be taken into consideration throughout the process. The changing beam length can be controlled by collimation (alignment of the optics), using a constant beam length axis, or employing an adaptive optics or capacitive height control system capable of making the necessary adjustments in real time.

Hybrid: Hybrid high power laser cutting machine offer a combination of the attributes found on moving material and flying optics machines. These machines feature a material handling table that moves on one axis (usually the X-axis) and a laser head that moves on another (usually the Y-axis). Hybrid systems allow for more consistent beam delivery, and reduced power loss and greater capacity per watt compared to flying optics systems.

Lasers are produced as either pulsed beams or continuous wave beams. The suitability of each depends on the properties of the material being cut and the requirements of the laser cutting applications. Pulsed beams are produced as short bursts of power output, while continuous wave beams are produced as continuous, high power output. The former is typically employed for scribing or evaporation cutting applications and is suitable for cutting delicate designs or piercing through thick materials, while the latter is suitable for high-efficiency and high-speed cutting applications.

Types of Assist Gases

Laser cutting employs a variety of assist gases to aid the cutting process. The cutting process employed and the material being cut determine the type of assist gas—either inert or active—that is most suitable for use.

Inert gas cutting (i.e., fusion cutting or inert gas melt shearing), as indicated by the name, employs chemically inert assist gases. The particular assist gas employed depends on the material's reactive properties. For example, since molten thermoplastics do not react with nitrogen and oxygen, compressed air can be used as the assist gas when laser cutting such materials. On the other hand, since molten titanium does react with nitrogen and oxygen, argon—or another similarly chemically inert gas—must be used as the assist gas in laser cutting applications involving this material. When laser cutting stainless steel via the inert gas cutting process, nitrogen is typically used as the assist gas; this is because molten stainless steel chemically reacts with oxygen.

When laser cutting material via the reactive melt shearing process, an active (i.e., chemically reactive) assist gas—typically oxygen—is employed to accelerate the cutting process. While in inert gas cutting the material is heated, melted, and vaporized solely by the power of the laser, in reactive gas cutting the reaction between the assist gas and the material creates additional heat which aids the cutting process. Because of this exothermic reaction, reactive gas cutting typically requires lower laser power levels to cut through a material compared to the power level necessary when cutting the same material via the inert gas cutting process.

The cutting pressure of the assist gas employed is also determined by the cutting process employed and the properties and thickness of the material being cut. For example, polymers typically require gas jet pressures of 2–6 bar during the inert gas cutting process, while stainless steel requires gas jet pressures of 8–14 bar. Accordingly, thinner materials also generally require lower pressures, and thicker materials generally require greater pressures. In oxidation cutting, the opposite is true: the thicker the material, the lower the pressure required and the thinner the material, the higher the pressure required.

Types of Laser Cutting Machines

There are several types of laser cutting machines available which are categorized into gas, liquid, and solid state lasers. The types are differentiated based on the state of the active laser medium—i.e., whether the medium is a gas, liquid, or solid material—and what the active laser medium consists of (e.g., CO2, Nd:YAG, etc.). The main two types of lasers employed are CO2 and solid-state lasers.

One of the most commonly employed gas state lasers, a CO2 laser employs a carbon dioxide mixture as the active laser medium. CO2 lasers are typically used to cut non-metal materials since early models were not powerful enough to cut through metals. Laser technology has since evolved to enable CO2 lasers to cut through metals, but CO2 lasers are still better suited for cutting through non-metals and organic materials (such as rubber, leather, or wood) and simply engraving metals or other hard materials. Pure nitrogen lasers are another commonly used gas state laser. These lasers are used for applications that require the material not oxidize as it is cut.

There are several varieties of solid-state lasers available, including crystal and fiber lasers. Crystal lasers employ a variety of crystal mediums—e.g., neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) or neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4)—which allow for high-powered metal and non-metal laser cutting. Although versatile in regards to their material cutting capabilities, crystal lasers are typically more expensive and have shorter lifespans than other types of lasers. Fiber lasers offer a cheaper and longer lasting alternative to crystal lasers. This type of laser first generates a beam through a series of laser diodes which is then transmitted through optical fibers, amplified, and focused on the workpiece to perform the necessary cuts.

Laser Cutting Machine Considerations

As described in the previous section, the type of laser suitable for a laser cutting application is largely determined by the material being cut. However, other considerations may be taken into account when choosing and setting up a laser cutting machine for a specific application, such as the machine configuration, laser power, wavelength, temporal mode, spatial mode, and focal spot size.

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  The playing card factory
Posted by: llkktth176 - 11-08-2022, 10:50 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

The playing card factory

Our long, rich history began when A. O. Russell, Robert J. Morgan, James M. Armstrong and John F. Robinson Jr. formed a partnership and purchased from the proprietors of The Cincinnati Enquirer what was then known as the Enquirer Job Printing Rooms. The spaces occupied the first and second stories of the building at 20 College Street in Cincinnati, Ohio. The firm commenced business as Russell, Morgan & Co., referring to the two printers in the partnership.

While on College Street, the firm printed theatrical and circus posters, placards and labels. By 1872, the business had increased so much, it was forced to seek larger quarters, and in November 1872, it moved into a new, four-story building on nearby Race Street in downtown Cincinnati.

Mr. Russell proposed to his partners that they embark upon the manufacture of playing cards, an industry monopolized by several East Coast companies. The partners agreed and arrangements were made to add two additional stories to their building, making it six stories high. Many new machines were designed and built expressly for Russell, Morgan & Co. The first deck of playing cards was completed on June 28, 1881. About 20 employees manufactured 1600 packs per day.

IN 1891

Russell, Morgan & Co. became The United States Printing Company. Only three years later (1894), the playing card business had grown to such proportions that it was separated from the Printing Company, becoming The United States Playing Card Company.

The United States Playing Card Company gained immediate advantages, for it acquired other notable companies: The Standard Playing Card Co (Chicago), Perfection Card Co (New York) and New York Consolidated Cards Company. New York Consolidated Card Company had antecedents dating back to 1833 when Lewis I. Cohen perfected his four-color press for printing playing cards. The famous &quot;Bee&quot;? Playing Cards still issued by The United States Playing Card Company, had originated at the New York Consolidated Card Company in 1892.

Congress? playing cards is one of the original brands from 1881 which is still in production today and the card of choice for sophisticated bridge players. Likewise, the world-renowned Bicycle? playing card brand has been in continuous production since 1885.


The Joker is an American invention dating from about 1865 and has made different appearances in the Bicycle? card line. The first type represented a man on a high-wheeled bike. The bicycle later acquired two wheels of normal size. Then followed a series of playing card kings on bikes. These cyclists wheel past a milestone marked &quot;808.&quot; Contrary to some opinions, this number has no mystical meaning. It is merely a reference number distinguishing this brand from others (such as &quot;606&quotWink by the same company.


The Ace of Spades carries another code, identifying the year in which the deck was printed. This Ace features, within the suit sign, a woman who rests her right hand on a sword and shield while she holds an olive branch in her left. The image was inspired by Thomas Crawford's sculpture, &quot;Statue of Freedom.&quot; which, in 1865, had been placed atop the Capitol Building in Washington, DC.

BY 1900

The United States Playing Card Company expanded again, moving from downtown Cincinnati to a newly built factory in Norwood. Situated on over 30 acres, the facility would eventually accommodate over 600,000 square feet of manufacturing operations.


A Neo-Romanesque bell tower (4-stories high) was built in 1926 atop the company's 4-story main building entrance. This tower housed a fine set of 12 carillon bells, ranging in size from 1-1/2 to 5-1/2 feet. This was the first set of chimes built for radio broadcasting. The chimes were connected electronically to radio station WSAI, which was owned and operated by The United States Playing Card Company from 1922 until 1930 and located within The United States Playing Card Companycomplex. The main reason for the radio station was to promote the game of bridge by broadcasting bridge lessons. In those days, there was no limitation on the range of radio power and the WSAI transmission was so clear and strong that it could be picked up as far away as New Zealand. WSAI was eventually sold in the 1930's to the Crosley Radio Corporation.

During World War II, the company secretly worked with the U. S. government in fabricating special decks to send as gifts for American prisoners of war in German camps. When these cards were moistened, they peeled apart to reveal sections of a map indicating precise escape routes. Also during the war, The United States Playing Card Companyprovided &quot;spotter&quot; cards, which illustrated the characteristic shapes of tanks, ships and aircraft from the more powerful countries. The company further assisted by sewing parachutes for anti-personnel fragmentation bombs.


The Ace of Spades served a famous purpose in the war in Vietnam. In February, 1966, two lieutenants of Company &quot;C,&quot; Second Battalion, 35th Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, wrote The United States Playing Card Company and requested decks containing nothing but the Bicycle? Ace of Spades. The cards were useful in psychological warfare. The Viet Cong were very superstitious and highly frightened by this Ace. The French previously had occupied Indo-China, and in French fortunetelling with cards, the Spades predicted death and suffering. The Viet Cong even regarded lady liberty as a goddess of death. USPC shipped thousands of the requested decks gratis to our troops in Vietnam. These decks were housed in plain white tuck cases, inscribed &quot;Bicycle? Secret Weapon.&quot; The cards were deliberately scattered in the jungle and in hostile villages during raids. The very sight of the Bicycle? Ace card was said to cause many Viet Cong to flee.

The company acquired Heraclio Fournier, S.A., the poker playing cards manufacturer in Europe. In 1987, The United States Playing Card Company acquired Arrco Playing Card Company, the third largest playing card manufacturer in the country. International Playing Card Company, a Canadian subsidiary of The United States Playing Card Company since 1914, maintained its own manufacturing operation from 1928 to 1991. Currently, International Playing Card Company is a sales and marketing organization located in Ontario. The United States Playing Card Company was acquired by a series of new owners: Diamond International in 1969, Jessup & Lamont in 1982, Frontenac in 1989.

Playing cards were invented in Ancient China. They were found in China as early as the 9th Century during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). The first reference to the card game in world history dates no later than the 9th Century, when the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang Dynasty writer Su E, described Princess Tongchang (daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang) playing the "leaf game" in 868 with members of the Wei clan (the family of the princess' husband). The Song Dynasty (960–1279) scholar Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) asserted that playing cards and card games existed at least since the mid-Tang Dynasty and associated their invention with the simultaneous development of using sheets or pages instead of paper rolls as a writing medium. The first known book on cards called Yezi Gexi was allegedly written by a Tang-era woman, and was commented on by Chinese writers of subsequent dynasties.

During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), characters from popular novels such as the Water Margin were widely featured on the faces of playing cards. By the 11th century playing cards could be found throughout the Asian continent.

Ancient Chinese "money cards" have four "suits": coins (or cash), strings of coins (which may have been misinterpreted as sticks from crude drawings), myriads (of coins or of strings), and tens of myriads (where a myriad is 10,000). These were represented by ideograms, with numerals of 2–9 in the first three suits and numerals 1–9 in the "tens of myriads". Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which were both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for, as in trading card games. The designs on modern Mahjong tiles likely evolved from those earliest playing cards. However, it may be that the first deck of cards ever printed was a Chinese domino deck, in whose cards we can see all the 21 combinations of a pair of dice. In Kuei-t'ien-lu, a Chinese text redacted in the 11th Century, we find that dominoes cards were printed during the Tang Dynasty, contemporary to the first printed books. The Chinese word pái (牌) is used to describe both paper cards and gaming tiles.

Introduction into Europe

Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th Century, probably from Mamluk Egypt, with suits very similar to the tarot suits of Swords, Staves, Cups and Coins (also known as Disks, and Pentacles) and those still used in traditional Italian, Spanish and Portuguese decks. The first documentary evidence is a ban on their use in 1367, Bern, Switzerland. Wide use of foil playing cards in Europe can, with some certainty, be traced from 1377 onwards.

The Mameluke deck contained 52 cards comprising four "suits": polo sticks, coins, swords, and cups. Each suit contained ten "spot" cards (cards identified by the number of suit symbols or "pips" they show) and three "court" cards named malik (King), nā'ib malik (Viceroy or Deputy King), and thānī nā'ib (Second or Under-Deputy). The Mameluke court cards showed abstract designs not depicting persons (at least not in any surviving specimens) though they did bear the names of military officers.

A complete pack of Mameluke playing cards was discovered by Leo Mayer in the Topkap? Palace, Istanbul in 1939. This particular complete pack was not made before 1400, but the complete deck allowed matching to a private fragment dated to the 12th or 13th Century. In effect it is not a complete deck, but there are cards of three packs of the same style.

Various Ganjifa cards from Dashavatara set, with ten suits depicting the ten Avatars of the god Vishnu.

It is not known whether these cards influenced the design of the Indian cards used for the game of Ganjifa, or whether the Indian cards may have influenced these. Regardless, the Indian cards have many distinctive features: they are round, generally hand painted with intricate designs, and comprise more than four suits (often as many as thirty two, like a deck in the Deutsches Spielkarten-Museum, painted in the Mewar, a city in Rajasthan, between the 18th and 19th Century. Decks used to play have from eight up to twenty suits).

Spread across Europe and early design changes

Italian playing cards, Sancai-type bowl, Northern Italy, mid-15th Century.

In the late 14th Century, the use of playing cards spread rapidly throughout Europe. Documents mentioning cards date from 1371 in Spain, 1377 in Switzerland, and 1380 in many locations including Florence and Paris. A 1369 Paris ordinance [on gaming?] does not mention cards, but its 1377 update does. In the account books of Johanna, Duchess of Brabant and Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxemburg, an entry dated May 14, 1379, reads: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters, two forms, value eight and a half moutons, wherewith to buy a pack of cards". In his book of accounts for 1392 or 1393, Charles or Charbot Poupart, treasurer of the household of Charles VI of France, records payment for the painting of three sets of cards.

The earliest cards were made by hand, like those designed for Charles VI; this was expensive. Printed woodcut decks appeared in the 15th Century. The technique of printing woodcuts to decorate fabric was transferred to printing on paper around 1400 in Christian Europe, very shortly after the first recorded manufacture of paper there, while in Islamic Spain it was much older. The earliest dated European woodcut is 1418. No examples of printed cards from before 1423 survive. But from about 1418 to 1450 professional card makers in Ulm, Nuremberg, and Augsburg created printed decks. Playing cards even competed with devotional images as the most common uses for woodcut in this period.

Most early woodcuts of all types were coloured after printing, either by hand or, from about 1450 onwards, stencils. These 15th Century playing cards were probably painted.

The Master of the barcode playing cards worked in Germany from the 1430s with the newly invented printmaking technique of engraving. Several other important engravers also made cards, including Master ES and Martin Schongauer. Engraving was much more expensive than woodcut, and engraved cards must have been relatively unusual.

In the 15th Century in Europe, the suits of advertising playing cards varied; typically a deck had four suits, although five suits were common and other structures are also known. In Germany, hearts (Herz/Rot), bells (Schellen), leaves (Grün), and acorns (Eichel) became the standard suits and are still used in Eastern and Southeastern German decks today for Skat, Schafkopf, Doppelkopf, and other games. Italian and Spanish cards of the 15th century used swords, batons (or wands), cups, and coins (or rings). The Tarot, which included extra trump cards, was invented in Italy in the 15th century.

The four suits now used in most of the world — Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, and Clubs — originated in France in approximately 1480. The trèfle (club) was probably copied from the acorn and the pique (spade) from the leaf of the German suits. The names "pique" and "spade", however, may have derived from the sword of the Italian suits. In England, the French suits were eventually used, although the earliest decks had the Italian suits.

Also in the 15th Century, Europeans changed the court cards to represent European royalty and attendants, originally "king", "chevalier" (knight), and "knave". The original meaning of knave was male child, so in this context the character could represent the "prince", son to the King and Queen; the meaning servant developed later. In a German pack from the 1440s, Queens replace Kings in two of the suits as the highest card. Fifty-six-card decks containing a King, Queen, Knight, and Valet (from the French tarot court) were common.

Court cards designed in the 16th Century in the manufacturing centre of Rouen became the standard design in England, while a Parisian design became standard in France. Both the Parisian and Rouennais court cards were named after historical and mythological heroes and heroines. The Parisian names have become more common in modern use, even with cards of Rouennais design.

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  Benefits of Feeding Birds through Feeders
Posted by: llkktth175 - 11-08-2022, 06:25 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Benefits of Feeding Birds through Feeders

Birds are amongst the best creation of God and feeding these small creatures not only has great significance in Hinduism but is also considered a noble act.

Usually, people provide bird's food and water through specially designed containers called Bird Feeders which are easily available in the market or on online stores. You can even make bird feeders at home (DIY) by using used plastic bottles and earthen pots.

In India, the significance of birds feeding is also associated with astrology; feeding the birds is considered a pious act, where the contributor can be benefitted from getting faster relief from disputes, court cases as well as the harmful effects of certain planets.

Advantages of feeding birds through bird feeders

1. Connects you with Mother Nature

A Hummingbird Feeder allows you to observe little birds 'the wonders of nature' closely and frequently and is the best way of connecting with Mother Nature and contributing to its conservation.

People who are fond of gardening can enrich their experience by installing bird feeders in their gardens and landscapes.

2. Care with Education

While you are busy with taking care of birds taking a little break from the hustle and bustle of daily life and modern-day stressors, your children looking at you learn the importance of caring for others, especially animals without any selfish reasons as homes and gardens with bird feeders attract more birds over time than those without having them installed.

3. Bird Feeders provides an Uninterrupted Supply of Food

With the ongoing decline in forest area, greener spaces and natural water bodies with abundant water supply the population of birds is at high risk. Through Hanging Bird Feeders, you provide birds a reliable source of a year-round supply of food and water.

There are stronger Garden Fences out there. Fences more precise in their dimensions, more uniform in their materials. Fences that took less time to build because they were planned out ahead of time, or even bought as an E-Z prefab kit. Mine I kind of made up as I went along.

We needed the fence because we have deer. Many deer. Also foxes, bobcats, coyotes, the occasional river rat, chipmunks, squirrels, and something that makes tracks we haven't been able to identify. I don't know how many of these animals enjoy eating vegetables, but enough that the fence was mandatory.

This is ostensibly a how-to article about fencing in your backyard vegetable garden, but even if you were to follow these steps by the number, your fence would turn out different. As it should. It's your yard, and your fence, and I learned while building this one that a fence can have personality. My yard, for example, has about a 30-degree slope in the area where my wife wanted the garden, and I wanted the fence to move with the slope. That's one way our fence developed its particular personality.

Cat Toys aren't all fun and games for your cat; whether elaborate or simple, toys give your cat exercise, mental stimulation, a chance to act on hunting instincts, and a way to bond with you.

There are so many cat toys on the market. It can be tough to pick ones that are both safe and appealing for your kitty.

Pick Cat Toys That Are Safe

Cat toys can range from free, homemade distractions to battery-powered devices. But regardless of the price tag, safety comes first.

Cats should never have any toy that includes loose string or yarn. The papillae that give the cat's tongue its rough texture act as tiny hooks to draw the string or yarn into the cat's throat.

Once ingested, string or yarn can lead to serious, even deadly, problems in the digestive tract.

Tidy Cats is helping you get back to the litter basics. Whether you're a first-time cat owner or just need a little refresher on best practices, here's a simple list of the litter to-do's and not-to-do's.

Scoop waste daily. Cats prefer a clean area to do their business (and we can't blame them!) So if you're using clumping litter, scoop and toss clumps every day.
Clean Cat Litter Boxes regularly. Wash the litter box monthly with water and mild detergent and refill with fresh litter. It's all about keeping things TIDY.
Refill the litter box with fresh litter about 3-4 inches deep for clumping litter. This ensures enough litter to cover their waste if they prefer to do so and allows enough depth to form tight clumps. (Non-clumping litter should be filled to about 2-3 inches).
Have enough boxes for each cat to have their own, plus one. (So, 1 cat = 2 boxes. 2 cats = 3 boxes. It just goes up from there, you get it!)

No More Early Morning Wake-Up Calls

Pets often associate you with food, which can lead to being awoken or greeted by a hungry, stressed pet. Pet Feeders give your pet each meal automatically without you being present. This means a lot when you need your time to sleep or just relax. Your pet will learn the routine of going to the feeder for food instead of going to you.

About 55% of dogs and cats are overweight, which can lead to serious health risks including heart and respiratory disease, kidney disease, and diabetes. Automatic feeders help provide proper weight management by giving your pet the portioned feedings they need.

If you have a pet who gulps his food or eats too fast, a feeder can help him slow down. The Slow Feed option with the new Simply Feed pet feeder dispenses each meal over a 15-minute period. This is also great for cats, who prefer to nibble a bit of food over a longer period. Slowing down your pet's eating improves digestion and prevents stomach bloat and vomiting.

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  Fashion Forward: How Three Revolutionary Fabrics Are Greening the Industry
Posted by: llkktth175 - 11-08-2022, 06:23 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Fashion Forward: How Three Revolutionary Fabrics Are Greening the Industry

If the holiday sales are tempting you to refresh your wardrobe, consider the environmental footprint of buying a new jacket and throwing away your old one. Today, about 80 billion new pieces of clothing are made each year—400 percent more than 20 years ago, while the world's population only grew about 30 percent. That growth has a huge environmental cost. The Danish Fashion Institute named fashion "one of the most resource-intensive industries in the world, both in terms of natural resources and human resources." Designer Eileen Fisher has called it "the second-largest polluter in the world… second only to the oil industry," and while that fact has been disputed, a 2010 research paper found that the industry is responsible for almost 10 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Moreover, once clothes have been made and worn for a short while, they're thrown away. A new report from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation found that cumulatively around the world a truckload of clothes gets dumped every second. The average American tosses about 82 pounds of textiles a year, much of which ends up in landfills or incinerated. Of the clothing that reaches second-hand stores like Goodwill—only 15 percent of all discards—some is recycled into shoddy (filling for cheap furniture) or upcycled into things like denim insulation, but most of it is shipped to poorer countries. However, they too have limits—African countries including South Africa and Nigeria recently banned Western castoffs, which have overwhelmed their markets, causing the decline of their local fashion business.

Replacing Old Fabrics With New Biopolymers

Two types of textiles—petroleum-made polyester and field-grown cotton, often woven together—have been the fashion industry's darlings for decades. "Much of [what we wear now] is a blend of PET, a petroleum-based fiber, and cotton fiber," says Ramani Narayan, a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Michigan State University. But these Sportswear Fabrics have their issues. Cotton, which makes over 30 percent of our clothes' yarns, is a natural material, but it's a thirsty crop that siphons 3 percent of the fresh water, and accounts for almost 20 percent of pesticides and 25 percent of the insecticides used in agriculture worldwide, before it's even picked. Processing cotton—knitting, weaving, and dyeing—also takes water and energy, yielding more pollution. The production of polyester, the demand for which has doubled in the last 15 years, is an energy intensive process that requires a lot of oil and generates harmful emissions, including volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and acid gases, like hydrogen chloride, all of which contribute to respiratory disease. "Adding PET to a textile gives you better performance—it makes Coarse Needle Fabrics more moisture-resistant and gives them more washability," says Narayan, but these textiles don't break down naturally, and instead fill up our landfills and oceans. Polyester threads discarded from washing machines have recently been found in fish, including some species we eat. Unless PET threads are decoupled from cotton and recycled, they don't decompose, but separating fibers is very difficult.

AlgiKnit extracts alginate from kelp by adding certain salts to the seaweed base. After the so-called "salt bath" pulls the alginate from the kelp's cell walls, the biopolymer is extracted from the seaweed residue, dried into a powder and fused into a yarn that can be turned into a variety of Fleece Fabric types. "The process is similar to that of synthetic materials, where one long continuous strand is produced," says Tessa Callaghan, the co-founder of AlgiKnit. "The filament can be plied and twisted to increase strength, or cut into short fibers for other purposes." AlgiKnit won National Geographic's Chasing Genius Competition for developing this technology.

Using yeast to grow collagen eliminates the animal part of the equation—including slaughter and subsequent hide processing. It yields higher quality materials—perfectly shaped hides without branding marks or scars, and yields very large spans of leather, much bigger than a cow's body. It also offers nearly endless creative design ideas. The new collagen can be sprayed on top of another Polar Fleece Fabric to create never-before-seen leather fashions, like the t-shirt that is currently on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York as part of its Items: Is Fashion Modern? exhibit. This material can also be embossed or textured in ways that cow or pig leather just can't.

Modern Meadow will be introducing Zoa to market in 2018. The production facilities are already available from related industries such as biofuels. "We use 200,000 or 500,000-liter fermentation tanks [for the yeast]," says Schofer, "So the infrastructure already exists around the globe to take this from lab to commercial levels."

Sequester Methane and Wear it Too

A sewage plant and a fashion show couldn't possibly be further apart—but methane sequestered from wastewater is slowly creeping up onto the runways. California startup Mango Materials makes its fabrics by feeding wastewater methane to methanotrophic bacteria that eat it and produce PHA-based polyester that can be woven into threads or molded into various shapes. Unlike the oil-based PET Knitted Casual Wear Fabrics, PHA threads are biodegradable. "Because it's a naturally occurring polymer, there's a sister organism, a methanogen, that will break it down," said Anne Schauer-Gimenez, vice president of customer engagement for Mango Materials. But that doesn't mean that a shirt made from PHAs will be less durable than one made from PET. "If you're wearing it, and you're sweating, it won't break down," Schauer-Gimenez explains. "But once it ends up in a microbial-rich environment, degradation will occur. It could even degrade in a backyard compost."

Since methane is a greenhouse gas 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide, clothing made from Mango Materials' fabrics has the potential to mitigate global warming, if used on a larger scale. When Mango Materials makes its polyester Workwear Fabrics, the methane is essentially sequestered from the atmosphere, for as long as the clothes remain intact. Of course, when PHA fabrics biodegrade, the methane is re-released, but Mango Materials would like to find a way to keep the gas out of the atmosphere long-term.

A knitted fabric made from a fine gauge yarn, Single Jersey is usually made from cotton but can also be made from synthetic fibres, wool and silk. The fabric is soft, drapes well, is stretchy (it can stretch up to 25% along the grain) and is fairly crease resistant. Sometimes lycra is added to give extra elasticity.

It is a popular choice for clothing: the most popular garments made from jersey are t-shirts, sweatshirts, sportswear, dresses, tops and underwear. Jersey garments tend to fit closer to the body than ones made from woven fabric, as their elasticity allows them to mould to body contours more closely.

Jersey fabric is available in a large assortment of plain colours, but patterns can also be added – some woven in (jacquard) and some printed on to the fabric.

The fabric is named after the island of Jersey in the Channel Islands, where a woollen knitted jersey fabric was produced and became well known. The early version of the fabric was used for fishermen's clothing and was a heavier weight fabric than we use now.

Until the early 1900s, jersey fabric was generally used for making men's underwear. In 1913 Gabrielle 'Coco' Chanel popularised the fabric when she introduced ladies' casual clothes suitable for leisure and sport.

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  Everything About Sanitary Valves
Posted by: llkktth175 - 11-08-2022, 06:22 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Everything About Sanitary Valves

If you want to read one article to know everything about Sanitary Valve, then read this one. This article includes the most interesting and helpful posts about sanitary valves in our website. Here you can find short and concise posts, which give you the knowledge about valves without costing you too much time! Here you can see things clearly and lively with videos and gifs!

What are the sanitary valves?

To be short, the Sanitary Ball Valve is a special type of valve. The difference is that the sanitary valve has a higher manufacturing standard that the part of the valve in contact with the medium is usually made of 304SS or 316 stainless steel, which is non-toxic and is not easy to cause corrosion. Therefore, sanitary valves are commonly used in dairy, food, pharmaceutical, medical, and chemical applications. Their common features include easy cleaning, crevice-free, and polished contact surfaces.

Different types of sanitary valves

Similarly, with ordinary valves, Sanitary Butterfly Valves can be categorized into sanitary butterfly valve, sanitary ball valve, sanitary check valve, and other types of valve. For specific information about the types of valve, please refer to Basic types of sanitary valves. And below is a short video introducing some of the basic types of valves.

Sanitary Valve Materials

304 and 316 stainless steel are the two most popular materials used in Sanitary Diaphragm Valves. Both of these two stainless steel are non-magnetic, austenitic, and non-hardenable through heat treatment. They are quite durable, and are easily formed and fabricated. 316 steel has better corrosion resistance due to the addition of Molybdenum, but its price is also higher. 316 steel can be worth the expense if you need to have superior corrosion resistance. But for many other applications, grade 304 will serve perfectly fine.

Valve Test

In general, we will check whether the valve is qualified from three aspects: switch, leakage and strength. The switch of the valve is usually examined by means of a sealed pressure test. If the valve switch is feasible and there is no leakage, it is considered to meet the standard. Leakage includes internal leakage and external leakage, both of which should be carefully tested by the valve manufacturer. Strength of the Sanitary Tank Bottm Valve determines the service life of your valve. Thus, the valve body, disc and sealing surface of a qualified valve must meet the corresponding requirements to prevent corrosion of the valve.

Valve Disassembly

During the use of the valve, even as for the Sanitary Check Valve, it is unavoidable that some deposits or contaminants may appear inside it. In order to extend the life and performance of the valve, the valve should be disassembled and cleaned regularly. Valve disassembly does not require much professional knowledge, so we can do it by ourselves. Here is a video of ball valve disassembly for you.

Valve Maintenance

In order to extend the service life of the Sanitary Plug Valve, we need to do a good job in the storage of the valve. Its purpose of is to prevent the valves from being damaged or of reduced quality during storage. In fact, improper storage is one of the important reasons for valve damage. For specific advice on valve maintenance, please refer to Seven tips to help you better maintain your valves.

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Posted by: llkktth175 - 11-08-2022, 06:20 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies


Bouncing isn't just for triggers! Read about the benefits of Inflatable Castles for toddlers and kids.

Bouncy castles have been around for years, with larger versions normally up for use at fairs and carnivals while smaller versions can be rented or purchased for home use.

While even adults have to admit they are pretty fun to jump around in, are there really any benefits of bouncy castles for kids? You bet!



One of the main benefits of bouncy castles for kids is the fact that it is a great way to encourage exercise or help with weight loss.

Even children that have a normal body weight still need regular exercise and trying to create an exercise routine for a child is almost impossible.

While kids will need a little bit of adult supervision, they can basically bounce on their own and the recommended 20 to 30 minutes of exercise a day, three times a week can easily be achieved.

Shoot, my boys could go outside and bounce for an hour. They come in drenched and HAPPY!

For some extra fun, add soft of plastic balls or stuffed animals to the Inflatable Slide. Let the craziness begin!


Children can obviously enjoy themselves while jumping alone, but bouncy castles tend to attract other children for what seems like miles around.

Who doesn't love having someone to play with? It's the perfect excuse to get together with friends.

Of course, kids will need to learn to take turns, play well with each other and also be conscious of their actions as to not bump into each other while playing.

Clear rules should be explained about how many kids can be on at one time and any other rules, like whether or not shoes are allowed, etc.


While this may be more of a benefit for parents, bouncy castle rental can cost a few hundred dollars per day, while purchasing one can run about $300 to $400 depending on the size.

After just two uses, the castle has already paid for itself. I can't tell you how many parents I know just went ahead and purchased one for the summer.

New bouncy castle kits should include the fan, the Inflatable Obstacle Course itself and the correct electrical cord or breaker.

Bouncy castles provide exercise and hours of entertainment for both children and adults.

While rentals are a good option, purchasing a bouncy castle is probably the best choice for unlimited amounts of fun.

First and foremost, now that our stunning summer has finally come to a close, how great is it that bouncy castle fun can be brought inside? Whatever the weather, if you have an indoor area large enough – or Inflatable Interactive Games to fit it – summer fun can continue throughout all seasons. Ultimately, bouncy castles are year-round people pleasers.


Whether you're going for a pirates shindig, a princess party, or an under-the-sea extravaganza, hiring a bouncy castle will instantly theme your space.

As parents, we know that putting together a top children's party can be hard graft, and every little certainly helps. Themed Advertising Inflatabels instantly lift the room with minimal effort, meaning you can simply adorn the area with additional banners, party plates and a themed cake. Simples. Of course, if you're a mum who doesn't do things by halves, don't forget the artistic balloon bunches, too.


At children's parties, bouncy castles can certainly be the main attraction. At family events, they can keep the kids distracted while the grown-ups relax or chat amongst themselves. Whether at weddings, alternative festive events, or corporate days, hiring a bouncy castle is an easy inclusive solution that will keep children of all ages entertained.


Beyond their usual use, do your research. Often, when you are hiring a bouncy castle, specialist companies can offer much more than the standard. Enhance your day with inflatable slides, bungee runs, and other action inflatables.

Suitable bouncy castles can really add an unexpected – and totally hilarious – element to your adults-only party, by the way. You could even turn things into It's a Knockout mayhem! You can usually do this for a cost-efficient price as well, especially considering how much parties can cost these days.

Hiring a bouncy castle might be an oldie, but it's definitely a goodie. Let's get nostalgic for a few minutes and think of all those childhood memories that are caught up in the wonder of such simplistic inflatable fun. Affordable, safe, great exercise, and a real hoot to boot, is there anything that bouncy castles don't offer?

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