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  How to Select Valves for Molecular Sieve Switching Applications
Posted by: llkktth172 - 11-06-2022, 05:48 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

How to Select Valves for Molecular Sieve Switching Applications

Molecular sieves

Molecular sieves use a desiccant process to remove water vapor from hydrocarbon streams. The process involves flowing hydrocarbon fluid over an adsorption bed to remove moisture. As a bed reaches saturation, switching valves direct the hydrocarbon gas to another bed while the first bed is regenerated with hot, reverse flowing gas.

Switching valves are key

From the article, here's how important the switching valves are to this process. The performance of a molecular sieve unit is critically linked to the performance of the switching valves. The drying process itself requires tight sealing between the adsorption and regeneration streams to maintain efficiency. Mechanical reliability is also paramount since these units can run for years between turnarounds, while switching two to three times a day.

The valves must seal reliably, despite the presence of abrasive dust and constant thermal cycling between ambient feed and 500°F regeneration gas. Increasingly strict fugitive emission requirements make the design problem even more difficult because the valve must both seal and avoid packing leaks, even as it is constantly operated.

Historically, the industry has used rising Segment Ball Valve for molecular sieve service. This design employs a mechanical arrangement that first moves the ball off the seat, then turns the ball away from the seat as it opens. The valve closes by first twisting toward the seat, then jamming against it to achieve tight bidirectional shutoff. The RSBV design has two design issues. The mechanical stress on the stem is excessive, eventually warping the stem and creating seat leaks. More detrimental are the higher fugitive emissions associated with a rising stem design, which tend to be 100 times higher than with a rotary valve.

A modern solution

As operating units continue to extend times between turnarounds, industry has sought better performing valve alternatives. One design, the double eccentric C-ball valve, has emerged as the best choice. This design offers the same mechanically assured shutoff as an RSBV, with zero leakage bidirectional shutoff and low-wear eccentric motion, but has further advantages, as I explain: The double eccentric C-Knife Gate Valve has a much simpler and more rugged design than an RSBV. It also has no stem wear, and it utilizes true rotary motion to greatly minimize emissions. With the same face-to-face and flow coefficients as an RSBV, a double eccentric C-ball valve is a drop-in replacement.

The new valve design can operate in molecular sieve service for eight years or more without maintenance, and during that time it continues to meet fugitive emission requirements, without the need for packing adjustment.

Double eccentric c-ball design details

Double eccentric C-ball valves incorporate a C-shaped ball, which moves along two axes to achieve tight closure.

The C-ball utilizes double offset trunnions to create a camming motion that allows the valve to seal independent of process pressure. The camming effect also moves the C-ball away from the seat as the valve opens to minimize wear. The combination of fixed metal seats, mechanical sealing independent of process pressure, low wear, low emissions, and a very long service life make this type of valve ideal for molecular sieve switching service.

Double eccentric C-Ball Valves are available in sizes from ? inch to 42 inches, and pressure classes up to 4,500 pounds. End users are utilizing this technology for molecular sieve switching applications, and they are also deploying the valves in a variety of other severe service applications that demand reliable shutoff and long life.

Actuators are an integral part of instrumentation systems that power the machines that exist today. These devices make it possible for the machines to interact with their surroundings the way they do. In this article, we take a closer look at omnipresent technology.

An actuator is a machine, or rather a part of a machine used to convert externally available energy into motion based on the control signals. Much like how hands and legs enable humans to move around and perform actions, actuators let machines perform various mechanical movements. The topic for discussion for this article is actuators. We will explain what is an actuator, how actuators work, and what are the different types of actuators used in industrial and domestic applications.

From the perspective of systems engineering, functions of any engineering product can be classified into three distinct categories; the collection of input, processing and producing an output.

For electromechanical systems, the input is detected and measured by a device called a sensor. The task of a sensor is to sample the signals available to it and convert them into a form understandable by the system. The system then processes the information and decides how to respond. But how exactly does a system respond? The answer is, with the help of an Actuator.

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  Industrial Fans
Posted by: llkktth172 - 11-06-2022, 05:46 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Industrial Fans

What is an Industrial Fan?

An industrial Mining Fan is a highly efficient, heavy duty air flow device that is constructed from exceptionally durable materials and components to withstand stringent environments and operate longer to provide constant air flow and pressure. The strength of industrial fans is due to the materials used to manufacture them, which include ball or roller bearings, continuous welds, and housings made of cast aluminum and stainless steel.

There is a wide range of uses of industrial fans, from cooling large commercial buildings to providing cooling for technical assembly operations. Regardless of the size of the workspace, air flow and circulation are critical to the health of workers and the efficiency of an application.

Types of Industrial Fans

There are several types of industrial Local Air Supply Fans that vary in the amount of air to be moved, their motor, area to be cooled, and a variety of other factors. Though there is an endless number of fans, they break down into two categories, which are centrifugal and axial.

A centrifugal fan functions like a blower and is an enclosed unit that functions like a pump. It pulls air in using a rapidly rotating impeller then pushes it out at a 90o angle; this can be seen in the image below.

An axial fan pulls and blows air parallel to its axis, causing the air to transfer axially outward. The amount of air flow and the fan design is determined by the fan's blades, casing, and suction nozzle. The rotational movement of an axial Centrifugal Fan can be seen in the image below.

Industrial Fans Types

Air Foil Fan

An air foil fan has flat standard blades and is used in cooling towers, engine cooling, and refrigeration. They can be set up for blowing or sucking with blades that can be set at different pitch angles to adjust air flow. Air foil High Temperature Fans consume little energy and produce very little noise.

Backward Curve Fan

Backward curved fans have a single thickness and curved plate blades that prevent dust build up and expansion along the blades' passages. The blades curve backwards from the inner edge to the outer edge relative to the direction of the rotation. The air flow is in a radial direction due to the impeller developing static pressure because of the longer blades. Backward curved Universal Centrifugal Fans have exceptional efficiency and are suitable for high pressure applications.

Backward Inclined Fan

Backward inclined fans have simple flat backward inclined blades that do not interfere with the air flow. The blade design has a lower noise level and is energy efficient. They are designed for use in clean air and high temperature applications.

Radial Blade Fan

Radial blade fans have six to twelve flat blades that extend radially from the hub of the fan. The blades are narrow, heavy, and deep; this enables the avoidance of the accumulation of dust or sticky material on the blades. Since a radial blade High Pressure Centrifugal Fan does not accumulate dust or dirt, it is ideal for high pressure dust loading applications. Impellers for a radial blade fan can be paddle wheel, open wheel, backplate wheel, or steel plate designs, and they produce medium air flow.

Radial Tipped Fan

Radial tipped Tunnel Fans deliver static efficiency without material build up on the impeller due to the rapid movement of particulate matter and dust. They have a rugged design, which makes them suitable for high volume air flow at moderate to high pressure. They are normally used with baghouse dust collectors, scrubbers, and cyclones.

Paddle Wheel Fan

Paddle wheel fans are a multipurpose type of Roof Axial Flow Fan that is used for high temperature applications and material handling. They have heavy, deep radial blades and a compact housing able to meet the needs of high pressure applications with satisfactory efficiency. The blades are equally spaced and extend perpendicularly to the rotation of the wheel.

Forward Curved Fan

Forward curved fans are referred to as squirrel cage Explosion-Proof Axial Fans and are used for residential and light commercial HVAC equipment as well as low to medium static applications. The housing of a forward curved impeller converts high velocity air, leaving the tips of the impeller blade with a lower velocity static force to direct the air flow to the outlet. It can have a housing type that is referred to as scroll, volute, or sirocco. A forward curved impeller installed in a scroll housing is called a forward curved blower.

Vane Axial Fan

A vane axial fan is a disk type Boiler Fan in a cylinder with air guide vanes positioned before or after the impeller. They are capable of operating for long periods of time even when exhausting smoke and have a high temperature motor and motor cooling system. Their blades are made of steel with balanced corrections and a control box for remote control. Vane axial fans have high temperature resistance, a balanced flow, and little to no vibration.

Variable Pitch Fan

Variable pitch industrial fans are axial fans with adjustable impeller blades that are built to operate in a variety of fan applications. The design of the fan allows for the changing of the blade angle while the rotor is in motion. Variable pitch fans come in single and double stage varieties with single stage fans having one propeller and double stage fans having two propellers. The change of pitch in a variable pitch fan is accomplished by the hub spring, diaphragm, blade shafts, rotary air joint, and valve positioner.

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  Choosing Pots and Pans to Improve Your Cooking
Posted by: llkktth172 - 11-06-2022, 05:45 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Choosing Pots and Pans to Improve Your Cooking

A few well-chosen pieces—starting with a good stockpot and a heavy sauté pan—can make a big difference

As a Fine Cooking editor, I've had the chance to observe lots of great cooks at work. From them, I've learned plenty—including the fact that good-quality pots and Frying Pans made of the right materials really can improve your cooking.

Rather than having a rack filled with pots and pans of all shapes and sizes, owning a few well-chosen pieces will give you the flexibility to cook whatever you want and the performance you need to cook it better.

I polled some of our authors to find out which Cartoon Mini Egg Pans were the most valuable to them and why. I then came up with six pieces, starting with two indispensables: an anodized-aluminum stockpot to handle stocks, soups, stews, some sauces, blanching, boiling, and steaming; and a high-sided stainless-steel/aluminum sauté pan with a lid for frying, deglazing sauces, braising small items like vegetables, making sautés and fricassées, cooking rice pilafs and risottos, and a whole lot more. The other four pieces I picked make for even more cooking agility and add up to half a dozen ready-for-action pots and pans that you'll really use (see For every pot, there's a purpose…).

For every pot, there is a purpose…

The letters identifying the pots key to the photo below.

A. Calphalon 8-quart (or bigger) stockpot, with lid. Simmer soup or cook a big batch of tomato sauce in this sturdy, nonreactive stockpot. It will do double-duty for boiling pasta and steaming vegetables, too.

B. All-Clad 3-quart sauté pan, with lid. Stainless coating with aluminum sandwiched all the way through makes for a responsive, durable, attractive Grill Pan. Great for frying, deglazing, and, of course, sautés. And it goes from stove to oven.

C. Mauviel Cuprinox 3-quart stainless-lined copper saucepan, with lid. Top-performing copper is heavy-duty and responsive, with a shiny stainless interior that's easy to see into and durable. Copper tarnishes easily, but when it's cared for, it looks great.

D. Lodge cast-iron skillet. Old faithful needs thorough drying and constant seasoning, but nothing takes high heat better, holds it as long, or puts a better crust on cornbread. It's durable — and cheap, too.

E. Le Creuset oval enameled cast-iron casserole, with lid. Great for stove-to-oven roasts and stews and long, slow simmering. Its light-colored interior makes it easy to see into for deglazing sauces.F. Circulon Commercial nonstick skillet. This heavy-weight nonstick stands up to high heat and wear, goes from stove to oven, has an easy- gripping handle, and cooks delicate omelets as well as Cajun pork chops.

All good pans share common traits

In a well-stocked kitchen store, you'll see lots of first-rate pots and Square Grill Pans. They may look different, but they all share essential qualities you should look for.

Look for heavy-gauge materials. Thinner-gauge materials spread and hold heat unevenly, and their bottoms are more likely to dent and warp. This means that food can scorch. Absolutely flat bottoms are particularly important if your stovetop element is electric. Heavy-gauge pans deliver heat more evenly (see "Good pans are worth their price…," below).

To decide if a pan is heavy enough, lift it, look at the thickness of the walls and base, and rap it with your knuckles—do you hear a light ping or a dull thud? A thud is good in this case.

Good pans are worth their price because they manage heat better

"Good conductor" and "heavy gauge" are the key features of good cookware. Here's how these characteristics affect cooking.

You get responsive heat. Good heat conductors, such as copper and aluminum, are responsive to temperature changes. They'll do what the heat source tells them to do—heat up, cool down—almost instantly.

You get fast heat flow. Heat flows more easily through a good heat conductor, assuring a quick equalizing of temperature on the cooking surface.

You get even heat diffusion. A thicker pan has more distance between the cooking surface and the heat source. By the time the heat flows to the cooking surface, it will have spread out evenly, because heat diffuses as it flows.

You get more heat. Mass holds heat (heat is vibrating mass, so the more mass there is to vibrate, the more heat there will be). The more pan there is to heat, the more heat the pan can hold, so there's more constant heat for better browning, faster reducing, and hotter frying.

You'll want handles and a lid that are sturdy, heatproof, and secure. Handles come welded, riveted, or screwed. Some cooks advise against welded handles because they can break off. But Gayle Novacek, cookware buyer for Sur La Table, has seen few such cases. As long as handles are welded in several spots, they can be preferable to riveted ones because residue is apt to collect around a rivet.

Many pans have metal handles that stay relatively cool when the pan is on the stove because the handle is made of a metal that's a poor heat conductor and retainer, such as stainless steel. Plastic and wooden handles stay cool, too, but they're not ovenproof. Heat- or ovenproof handles mean that dishes started on the stovetop can be finished in the oven.

All lids should fit tightly to keep in moisture. The lid, too, should have a heatproof handle. Glass lids, which you'll find on certain brands, are usually ovensafe only up to 350°F.

A pan should feel comfortable. "When you're at the store, pantomime the way you'd use Soup & Stock Pots or pan to find out if it's right for you," advises Fine Cooking contributing editor and chef Molly Stevens. If you find a pan you love but you aren't completely comfortable with the handle, you can buy a rubber gripper to slip over the handle. Just remember that grippers aren't ovenproof.

Some pans need special talents

Depending on what you'll be cooking in the pan, you may also need to look for other attributes.

For sautéing and other cooking that calls for quick temperature changes, a pan should be responsive. This means that the Baking Dishes & Pans are doing what the heat source tells it to, and pronto. For example, if you sauté garlic just until fragrant and then turn down the flame, the pan should cool down quickly so the garlic doesn't burn. Responsiveness isn't as crucial for boiling, steaming, or the long, slow cooking that stocks and stews undergo.

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  How to Use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers
Posted by: llkktth172 - 11-06-2022, 05:43 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

How to Use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers

If you break a bone in your leg or foot, have a procedure on your knee or lower leg, or suffer a stroke, your doctor may recommend that you use a walking aid while you are healing or recovering. Using crutches, a cane, or a walker can help keep your weight off your injured or weak leg, assist with balance, and enable you to perform your daily activities more safely.

When you are first learning to use your walking aid, you may wish to have a friend or family member nearby to help steady you and give you support. In the beginning, everything you do may seem more difficult. With just a few tips and a little practice, though, most people are able to quickly gain confidence and learn how to use a walking aid safely.

A Walking Cane can be helpful if you have minor problems with balance or stability, some weakness in your leg or trunk, an injury, or a pain. If you are elderly, using a single point cane may help you to walk more comfortably and safely and, in some cases, may make it easier for you to continue living independently.


If your injury or surgery requires you to get around without putting any weight on your leg or foot, you may have to use crutches.

Proper Positioning

When standing up straight, the top of your Walking Crutches should be about 1-2 inches below your armpits.

The handgrips of the crutches should be even with the top of your hip line.

Your elbows should be slightly bent when you hold the handgrips.

To avoid damage to the nerves and blood vessels in your armpits, your weight should rest on your hands, not on the underarm supports.

A Commode Chair is a portable chair designed for people with disabilities and older people. An easy-care portable chair can be moved at the desired place and has arms to support people to get in and out comfortably.

The commode chairs from Singapore are strong enough to support the people who have put on extra weight. This article aims to highlight the perks of having a commode chair for elderly and disabled people.

Types of Commode Chair

There are many types of commode chairs out there in the market. However, knowing the right kind of commode chair for you can save you a lot of time and stress. Listed below are some of the main types of commode chairs.

Static commodes

As the name implies, Static commodes are not mobile commode chairs as they don't have wheels. However, you can carry them to the required place. These chairs have detachable arms, which eases the process of lateral transfer. Many static commodes also come with handles for a better user experience.

Portable commodes

The portable commodes are mobile commode chairs as they come with four wheels and can easily be moved on tiles, carpet, and wooden floors. To provide more privacy to the users, these can be carried over to modern toilets.

Walkers and canes can be lifesavers for older people, but a new study highlights the downside of using them without training.

"A lot of older adults seem to struggle with their Walking Aids . . . they often drag along their walking aids like a burden with a difficult gait pattern as a result, possibly increasing the risk of falling," said the study's lead author, Tine Roman de Mettelinge of Ghent University in Belgium.

Older people need to be able to function independently, but gait problems can undermine that, even leading to nursing home admission, Roman de Mettelinge and her coauthor point out in the Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy.

For persons with disabilities, taking a shower is no small task. Bathing is supposed to be relaxing, but it can sometimes feel downright terrifying. The possibility of falling and getting bumps and bruises or ending up in the hospital can cause this to be a dreaded task. Instead of risking your health, here are several reasons why owning your own shower chair is a good idea.

1. Helps to improve your safety. Do you ever feel afraid of taking a bath or shower? The possibility of falling is most likely on your mind and a shower chair or Bath Chair and Stool can help put your mind at ease. Using a shower chair or bath chair helps to increase safety by decreasing the chance of you falling by providing a secure area in a slippery shower or bath. Shower Chairs and Bath chairs are especially useful for those that are in wheelchairs, the elderly, or anyone who finds excessive movement painful or difficult. You do not want to risk falling and possibly ending up in the hospital and causing yourself pain.

2. Hygiene is so important. Bathing while traveling can be a nightmare for people with limited mobility. When you own your own personal shower or bath chair you can take it with you! Who really knows how clean the bath and shower chairs at hotels really are and why should you put your health and hygiene at risk? Is it clean? Is it sturdy? Is it broken? A shower or bath chair is a very personal piece of equipment and using one that others have used leaves you to wonder. You don't want to risk infecting yourself with another's virus or bacteria or using equipment you are unfamiliar with and unsure of its safety.

What is a raised toilet seat?

A Raised Toilet Seat is a device that's used in place of, or underneath, a regular toilet seat. Also called an elevated toilet seat, a raised toilet seat is intended to provide extra height, so you don't have to squat low.

Depending on additional features, these toilet seats may also reduce the risk of slips and falls while getting on and off the toilet.

A primary care doctor or occupational therapist (OT) may recommend a raised toilet seat for a number of reasons, including:

reduced strength and mobility in the legs and hips

a recent hip replacement surgery

other recent surgeries, such as knee or back surgery

a recent accident or injury

balance issues

to help maintain independence

While making major modifications to your bathroom can be costly, raised toilet seats offer alternative adjustments that don't require you to buy a whole new toilet.

Overbed table

A narrow rectangular table designed especially for hospital patients that spans the bed and is typically fitted with casters for moving and a crank for adjusting the height.

For people who are limited to their beds for long time, Overbed Tables provide a comfortable way to eat, read and write on the cozy bed.
These tables are not only for hospitals, generally used for keeping laptop, phone, food, drink and book in easy reach of the users.
Not only for the patients, elderly, disable, but healthy people could also find overbed tables are very handy to use.

The Wheelchair is one of the most commonly used assistive devices for enhancing personal
mobility, which is a precondition for enjoying human rights and living in dignity and assists people
with disabilities to become more productive members of their communities. For many people, an
appropriate, well-designed and well-fitted wheelchair can be the first step towards inclusion and
participation in society.

The United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities,
the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and World Health Assembly resolution
WHA58.23 all point to the importance of wheelchairs and other assistive devices for the developing world, where few of those who need wheelchairs have them, insufficient production facilities exist, and all too often wheelchairs are donated without the necessary related services.
When the need is not met, people with disabilities are isolated and do not have access to the same opportunities as others within their own communities. Providing wheelchairs that are fit for the purpose not only enhances mobility but begins a process of opening up a world of education, work and social life. The development of national policies and increased training opportunities in the design, production and supply of wheelchairs are essential next steps.

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Posted by: llkktth172 - 11-06-2022, 05:42 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies


Plastic bottles make life so much easier. They're lightweight and easy to hold, and they're also strong and hard to break. A plastic Spray Bottle is the best way to contain and carry many kinds of liquid, from water and soft drinks to oil to household cleaners and baby formula. The plastic bottle is a great invention, but what happens to it when that handy container is empty?

How Bottles Can Hurt the Environment

Since the 1970s, people who care about the environment and the health of our planet have been worried about how to dispose of plastic once it's been used. Today, about 60 million water bottles are thrown away every day in America, and it can take up to 700 years for just one plastic bottle to break down in a process called biodegrading, which is also the process that happens when a piece of fruit rots. These bottles fill up our landfills, and we need landfill space to bury trash that can't be recycled. Throwing away plastic also hurts the environment in other ways. As plastic decays, it can give off chemicals that get into our water and air and can make people, plants, and animals sick.

To solve these problems, people have worked together to develop a process to recycle plastic bottles and convert them into other useful items, including clothes, furniture, fences, and new plastic Lotion Bottles, bags, and containers.

The Process of Recycling Plastic

Recycling takes many steps. First, the bottles have to be collected from homes, businesses, and other sites. Then, every plastic bottle must be separated from metal, glass, and other things that people put into recycle bins. The plastic bottles are also sorted by the type of plastic they're made from. Then, the bottles are cleaned remove any food, liquid, or chemical residue.

Next, all of the Airless Bottles are ground up and shredded into flakes. Finally, they are melted down and formed into small pellets, each about the size of a grain of rice. The pellets are bundled up and sold to companies that can be melt them and make them into many different products. Just think of all of the plastic toys, tools, electronic gadgets, and other plastic things in your own home. Many of these are made with recycled plastic.

Why Should We Recycle?

There are many reasons to recycle plastic bottles. For starters, recycling reduces the pollution that can come from the chemicals used to make these bottles. Recycling also helps cut down on the amount of trash thrown into landfills, so our garbage doesn't take up as much space. Recycling also creates jobs for people who collect recyclable things and work at places that turn them into new materials.

Recycling is good for the economy and the environment, and it's easy to do. All you have to do is remember to throw things into the right bins when you're done with them. But you can also do more, especially if places that you usually spend time don't have recycle bins. Students can talk to their school board, principal, and teachers about setting up recycling programs at school. You can also organize can and bottle drives to pick up litter and sort out recyclables in parks and along streets. And you can make signs to spread the word that recycling is easy and important to do.

You've seen the antiaging skincare claims, in newspapers, magazines, and even online: ominous photos of hypodermic needles posed alongside innocuous, even innocent-looking Cream Jar.

The message: Topical cosmetic creams promises the same wrinkle-relaxing, age-defying results as some pricey wrinkle-filling injections like Restalyne and Juva Derm, or even Botox.

But can they? If you're skeptical about what you read, you're not alone. Not surprisingly, some doctors also question the claims and the promises.

If you are someone who is not convinced to wear lip gloss again, this article is for you. The shiny lip gloss tubes deserve your attention. Why? Read on to know.

If you are someone who is always on the go and doesn't have enough time to do detailed makeup then just having a lip gloss tube in your bag can do the trick. A thick layer of your shiny lip gloss can make you look all glam and chic in a jiffy.

Be it a traditional, wedding look or a chic, western look, a Lip Gloss Tube works well with just anything. A lip gloss is versatile and looks great with just anything. If you like going with heavy makeup on the eyes, you can round off your look with a nude colored lip gloss. A bold red lip gloss can be used on days when you want to make a statement.

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  How to buy disposable face masks, according to medical experts
Posted by: llkktth172 - 11-06-2022, 05:41 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

How to buy disposable face masks, according to medical experts

With concerns about Covid-19 variants across the country, many people are restocking their supply of disposable face masks to wear outside the home. And unlike the beginning of the pandemic, when face masks were in short supply, shoppers now have many options to choose from, like reusable cloth masks, Disposable Masks and respirators (N95s and KN95s, for example).

Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind, experts said, is that any mask is better than no mask at all.

"Next to social distancing, face masking is without question the most effective mechanism to prevent transmission of viruses," said MarkAlain Déry, DO, MPH, an epidemiologist and medical director for infectious diseases at Access Health Louisiana.

Types of disposable face masks

What medical-grade and nonmedical-grade Disposable Face Masks, as well as respirators, have in common is that they're designed to be single-use face coverings — after you wear them, or when it gets dirty or contaminated, it goes in the trash.

That doesn't actually mean you have to toss them after a single use, however. Depending on the mask and how long you wear it for, it can be worn multiple times if you remove and store it properly, and as long as it is not wet or contaminated, for example.

The pros and cons of disposable masks

According to Déry, medical-grade disposable face masks are better than cloth masks at protecting others if the person wearing them is infected.

"There have been a number of studies looking at the efficacy of disposable masks," Déry said. "In terms of N95 and the three-layered surgical masks, these performed the best, both in terms of the inhalation and exhalation of the virus."

On the other hand, medical-grade or not, disposable masks create more waste, since they can't be reworn repeatedly. Plus, supplies may be limited, depending on local Covid surges and mask shortages at medical facilities. And since you have to continually buy new disposable masks, they can end up being more expensive.


Seal-tested Half Facepiece Respirator masks include the N95 and other FFP2/3 forms.

These masks have tangled fibers to filter pathogens in the air, and they fit very close to the face. The edges form a seal around the mouth and nose.

The general public should not use these masks as they are in critical supply. Only healthcare workers should use them.

What Is A Cartridge Filter And How Does It Work?

A cartridge filter is a piece of tubular filtration equipment that can be used across various industries for an array of filtration requirements. A cartridge is encased within a housing or a casing and used to remove unwanted particles, pollutants, and chemicals from liquids. The cartridge is exposed to water, liquid or solvent that needs filtration, as it flows inside the housing and passes through the filter element. Cartridge filters can also remove submicron particulates.

Industrial Filters And Cartridges are widely used in industries like pharmaceuticals, chemicals, inks and paints, food and beverage, automotive manufacturing, cement industry, oil and gas, refineries, petrochemicals, and more. It is vital to clean these cartridges to ensure that they filter consistently for a long time.

Industrial filter cartridges from Gopani have high dirt holding capacity, are easy to install, clean, and maintain. When cartridge filters are sturdy, have a sturdy quality core, and have well-formed media layers, it is easy to clean and install them.

Some filter systems allow back-washing and come with a CIP design. Others must be removed from the housings, disinfected, and washed. When not in use, these cleaned filter cartridges are dried and sealed to avoid contamination or wear.

Filter cartridges are used in many industrial applications to trap contaminants and solid waste. These liquid filter cartridges must be replaced when they reach their pre-set differential pressure.

When To Replace A Filter Cartridge?

It is important to know when to replace your filter cartridge. The Acid Gas Cartridges may come with a general guideline that suggests the number of days it will work – for example, every 30 days or every 45 days based on its dirt holding capacity. However, the number of days a cartridge will last also depends on the concentration of contaminants in the liquid.

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Posted by: llkktth170 - 11-02-2022, 11:06 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies


When you're looking to print and produce high-quality images, there's a never-ending number of options. Which printer to use, what type of ink cartridge to purchase and what material to print upon? A further decision you'll need to contemplate is whether you want your printing to be eco-solvent.

The benefits of eco-solvent printing

Eco-solvent inks have their colours suspended in a mild biodegradable solvent, which means that the ink has virtually no odour as they don't contain as many volatile organic compounds. They've been around since the early 2000s and originally were designed for general signage work.

The lack of smell is a real plus point for eco-solvent inks. In some solvent inks not only do you get a strong smell during the printing process, meaning you need to consider the placement of your Ecosolvent Printer, but they can also leave an odour on the printed material itself. This can rule out printing onto material which will be displayed or used indoors.

Having less volatile organic compounds also means that the eco-solvent printing cartridges are not so damaging, or deteriorating, to your printer components and as such you won't need to do full system cleans quite so often – although as with any type of printing you will need to do regular cleaning and maintenance of your printer from time to time.

Eco-solvent printing does require more heat in order to dry and this can affect the type of material you can print on. What's more, the ink is not as durable as solvent inks. While it's adequate for outdoor printing work, it's best to only use it for applications which need to last a year or two.

Choosing between solvent and eco-solvent print

While there are clearly a number of benefits to eco-solvent printing, it may be that for the type of printing you wish to do, choosing eco-solvent ink may not be right for you.

As we have already touched upon, eco-solvent ink is not ideal for all types of material due to the heat required to dry it. If you need to use thin, cheap vinyl then solvent ink would be better.

If cost is a factor, you should be aware that eco-solvent inks are more expensive than solvent inks, due to the number of benefits that you get with eco-solvent printing. However, they are widely used by businesses and individuals who are just starting out, or who have a medium-sized printing need. Industrial printing is still typically done with solvent inks.

Finally, you'll need to check what type of ink is compatible with your large format printer. If you know from the outset that you wish to use eco-solvent inks, you need to ensure that they are compatible with your Eco Printer.

How Does the Sublimation Process Work?

Just like any printing process, sublimation starts with the design stage. Coming up with a good design is crucial since the chosen image on the computer is the one that will reflect on the final print.

The design is then printed on a heat transfer paper, also known as sublimation paper. This paper is explicitly used for the transfer of the image when exposed to heat. A sublimation paper uses CMYO colors. Hence, the Sublimation Printer used must also accommodate the same. Luckily, most of the modern printers can alternate between the CYMK and CMYO colors.

After printing the image, the next process entails the heat transfer of the artwork to the final material. In this case, the material used must support sublimation printing. Polyester and polyester-coated materials are typically used in the process because they produce permanent prints. Other materials such as cotton are also an option, although the print won't be permanent.

The heat transfer process requires a heat source. Depending on the material, there are different heat source options used. These include a heat transfer machine, flat bend machine, cups sublimation machines among others. A specific amount of heat must be used to produce a quality image, and the image must be allowed to cool off to guarantee durability.

It is evident that the "next big thing" in the personalization world is UV printing, but what makes it so great? What can you do with a UV Printer that you can't do with sublimation or some other color printing method? And finally, is the equipment worth the price?

Before answering this, I should clarify for the benefit of newbie readers what this is. A UV inkjet printer is a lot like the inkjet printers we use to print documents in the office. The main difference is they are designed to print on other substrates besides paper, plus they use a UV light source to cure the inks after they are deposited onto the item/substrate.

I've been using a UV printer for a couple of years now and I think I have discovered a fair share of the good and bad points of the process.

First, the bad points: Two come immediately to mind. One is that these printers don't print on everything. Although some salespeople may make it sound that way, the truth is, there are countless products just begging for UV images but the inks won't adhere properly. It does print on most things, especially if you use an adhesion promoter. This is usually a liquid that can be applied with a paper towel prior to printing. A couple of UV Roll To Roll Printers on the market actually allow you to install the promotor like an ink allowing you to "print" the liquid prior to printing the ink. Although this may sound like a good idea, I question the wisdom since this would require relinquishing one or two nozzles for this purpose. I would much prefer having those nozzles available for white or clear inks.

Note, too, that dishwashers and microwaves are death to most UV printed items. Although a couple of ink companies are said to be working on inks that will withstand the rigors of a dishwasher, current inks that I've seen just can't cut it. This doesn't eliminate printing on cups and glassware but it does require a warning label at the very least.

Second, as I have pointed out in previous articles on this subject, these printers require a lot of attention compared to most of the other equipment you might have in your shop. Lasers, rotary engravers and sublimation equipment all stand maintenance free when not in use but this is not the case with a UV Flatbed Printer. I have made a rule that I print something every single day, without fail, to keep the heads clear of clogs.

As for the good points, there are many. Using adhesion promoters, you can print on many different substrates, including wood, most plastics, acrylic, metal, leather, plaques, stretched cloth, paper, poster board, ceramic and glass (glass and ceramic probably won't be dishwasher safe). Some of these materials, along with the materials made specifically for UV printers, will print just fine without an adhesion promoter.

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  What is an Oxygen Generator?
Posted by: llkktth170 - 11-02-2022, 11:04 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

What is an Oxygen Generator?

Oxygen Generators separate oxygen from air so that the gas can be fed into industrial processes in real-time or stored in pressure tanks. Oxygen generators are used in dozens of industrial applications ranging from gold mining to aquaculture to life support.

Normal ambient air is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and other trace gases like argon and CO2. In order to remove the nitrogen and trace gases, an oxygen generator is used.

The smallest oxygen generators are no larger than a soda can, while industrial oxygen generators can fill a room. However, all oxygen generators have the same purpose: to provide a safe supply of concentrated oxygen gas.

Businesses who need bulk oxygen gas often start by purchasing tanks of the gas from other companies who fill those tanks using an industrial oxygen generator. If their need for pure oxygen is large and ongoing, it may be cost-effective to purchase their own oxygen generator system and produce oxygen on site. While the up-front cost of the machinery is significant, the cost per cubic foot of oxygen generated is 1/3 to 1/2 that of purchasing bulk oxygen, so over time, the oxygen generator can pay for itself.

One example of this is hospitals that pipe oxygen into patient rooms. Instead of using bottled oxygen, most hospitals have one or more Industrial Oxygen Generators in the building. A system of pressurized pipes are used to flow oxygen to each room.

Types of Oxygen Generators

Pressure Swing Adsorption Oxygen Generator

Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is the most common method of producing oxygen at an industrial scale. PSA generators separate nitrogen from ambient air inside a pressurized tank filled with Zeolite. Zeolite is a natural or man-made mineral that acts as a "molecular sieve." It is this ability to "sort" molecules by size that makes zeolite so useful. The larger nitrogen molecules are adsorbed by the sieve material while the smaller oxygen molecules drift past and are collected. Pressure is then released, the nitrogen molecules are vented to the atmosphere, and the tank is pressurized again.

Using PSA will result in 90-95% oxygenated gas. Further refinement can be achieved by repeating the process until over 99% "pure" oxygen is generated.

As a side note, the PSA process can also be used to generate nitrogen by collecting the nitrogen molecules and venting the oxygen. PSA is also used in the large-scale commercial synthesis of hydrogen used in oil refineries and in the production of ammonia for fertilizer.

One special kind of Medical Oxygen Generator is more commonly known as an oxygen concentrator which is used as an alternative to oxygen bottles for home health care. While the up-front cost of the machine is more expensive than oxygen cylinders, they are safer than bottled oxygen and over time less expensive than having oxygen tanks delivered to the home.

Oxygen Concentrators are normally sold through medical supply houses and can be purchased with a prescription from a physician.

Membrane Oxygen Generator

Membrane oxygen generators use a compressed air stream passed through semi-permeable materials that allow for the passage of specific molecules. Under pressure, smaller oxygen molecules pass through the membrane, filtered out and collected leaving a stream of nitrogen flowing out the opposite end of the membrane. While membrane-type generators are not as common, they are considered to be more reliable because there are no moving parts that can fail.

Chemical Oxygen Generator

A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen by a chemical reaction. A container of inorganic salts called "superoxides" or sodium chlorate is ignited. As they heat they give off oxygen until the compound is consumed.

Because of their long shelf-life, stability and small size (about the size of a can of soda) chemical oxygen generators are used in commercial airliners. Mounted over the seats, each generator can produce enough oxygen for 2-3 masks for 10-20 minutes. A similar device is called an oxygen candle. It works using the same principle of releasing oxygen with heat, and is used as a personal safety oxygen supply in mines, submarines and on the space station.

How a Nitrogen generator works

Nitrogen Generators are separated from other molecules within a clean, dry compressed air stream. Pressure Swing Adsorption technology is used here as well, to isolate nitrogen molecules from other molecules in compressed air to leave nitrogen at the desired purity at the outlet of the generator. For some applications, such as tire inflation and fire prevention, relatively low purity levels (between 90% and 97%) are required. Other applications, such as food/beverage processing and plastic molding, require higher levels of purity (from 97% to 99.999%).

Industries that use Nitrogen

Electronics, Steel, Welding/metalworking, Lighting, Oil & gas, On-Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBIGGS), Ammonia production, Helium purification, Product transfer, Packaging.

A variety of systems are available for generating industrial oxygen and nitrogen, including all-in-one skids that combine a compressed air system (to supply the required stream of dry compressed air) with an oxygen generator or nitrogen generator. Ask an air system professional about the best solution for generating oxygen and nitrogen in-house.

It's only a little bigger than a computer monitor, yet as cases surge and with oxygen cylinders in short supply across several states, the concentrator is among the most sought after devices for oxygen therapy, especially among patients in home isolation and for hospitals running out of oxygen.

How are concentrators different from oxygen Cylinders and LMO?

Oxygen concentrators are the easiest alternatives to cylinders but can only supply 5-10 litres of oxygen per minute (critical patients may need 40-50 litres per minute) and are best suited for moderately ill patients.

Concentrators are portable and unlike LMO that needs to be stored and transported in cryogenic tankers, need no special temperature. And unlike cylinders that require refilling, concentrators only need a power source to draw in ambient air.

What is an air compressor? A look at the types and working principles.

An Air Compressor is a power tool that is used to convert power into energy, usually stored as pressurized air. Air compressors several methods to force more air into a cylinder/cylinders, thereby increasing the pressure. The compressor shuts off when the pressure reaches its upper limit, and it rests in the tank until a need arises.

Compressed air can be used for a variety of applications by using kinetic energy as the tank depressurizes. When the compressed air reaches its lower limit, the air compressor turns on again to re-pressurize.

Filter Elements are one of the most crucial parts on your injection molding machine. It is a key component and one of the greatest contributing factors to extending the life of your machine. Much like your kidneys, filter elements keep circulating fluids free from contamination and particles, which means your valves, pumps and hydraulic components will work properly.

Because of the importance of filter elements, you should ensure they are part of regular maintenance checks and that you replace filters as soon as they fail. In this article, we will go over signs that your filters are failing, how often you should change your filters, and the worst-case scenarios if you ignore your filters.

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  Everything you Need to Know about Industrial Furnaces
Posted by: llkktth170 - 11-02-2022, 11:03 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Everything you Need to Know about Industrial Furnaces

Chapter One – What is an Industrial Furnace?[/b]

A furnace is a direct fired device used to provide heat for industrial processes that require heat in excess of 400° C (752° F). Any industrial application that relies on heat to create a reaction or heat materials for production uses an Industrial Furnace. Of the many types of equipment and machines used for production and processing, furnaces are the most reliable. Through the combustion of fuels and gases, raw materials and products are heated by direct or indirect contact.

The construction of a furnace includes heat exchangers, air and flue blowers, fuel control, burners, pilot or ignition device, control circuitry, and a thermostat. Though these are typical components, furnace designs vary to meet the need of an application or function. Furnaces differ mainly by the types of fuel and how combustion is initiated. Regardless of the differences of operation, all furnaces serve the primary purpose of providing heat.

Chapter Two – How Industrial Furnaces Work

Different furnaces function differently and burn different types of fuel. For many years, furnaces were powered by wood or coal; this required constant refueling for continuous heat. Modern furnaces have moved on to fuels that are supplied automatically.

How a Furnace Works

The critical element in the operation of an efficient and economical furnace is its fuel. Though coal and wood were used for many years, they polluted the environment, required constant feeding, and made it difficult to keep a steady temperature. Modern furnaces have fuel fed directly into the furnace at a controlled rate or operate using electricity to maintain even temperature.

Fuel fired furnaces are the most widely used. The nature of the fuel determines the design of the furnace but is not relevant to modern furnaces. As with any type of heat operated device, the supply of oxygen is important to the furnace's efficient operation.

Electric furnaces use induction or resistance heating. The efficiency of electric furnaces, and the fact that they do not release flue gases makes them environmentally ideal. Unfortunately, the operation of an electric furnace is expensive.

Resistance heating is the most expensive type of electric furnace, and it uses a circulating fan to maintain temperature uniformity. Resistors are made of various types of materials or the load to be heated may serve as a resistor.

With induction heating, electricity passes through a coil that surrounds the load. The frequency of the current is determined by the type of load. The coils are water cooled to prevent them from overheating. Induction heating is used for heating a localized area of a workpiece.

Furnace Burner Types

The fuel is supplied to the burners where, predictably, it is burnt. Most Experimental Furnaces have more than one burner that can be mounted in different sections of the furnace depending on its design. The burner has an oxidizer to change the chemical energy into thermal energy. The type of fuel used in a furnace is determined by the burners. They mix the fuel and air and ignite them. Burners must be stable, cost effective, reliable, and energy efficient, and they must have proper flame dimensions.

The components of the burner include the nozzle, mixing tube, downstream connection, and air fuel ratio control. The fuel and air are mixed to produce the best quality flame; forced air is required for the mixing process.

The modern cell culture Incubator is much more than a box in which to keep cells warm. Talk of maintaining humidity, IR sensors, HEPA filters and decontamination cycles loom just as large in reviews and ads as mentions of temperature control. Yet how the box is heated (and perhaps cooled), how temperature uniformity is maintained and the speed at which the set point can be obtained and restored remain the heart of an incubator's functionality.

After they're set up, and if left undisturbed, most incubators can maintain a 37°C temperature to within about one-tenth of a degree. To do this, they rely on one of two technologies. The first surrounds the box with water, making use of water's large thermal capacity to keep things inside at a constant temperature. The other option is to heat the air inside the box more directly. Each technology has distinct advantages and disadvantages related to humidity, decontamination and more.

Industrial Drying Ovens are among the most common pieces of equipment found in factories across the US. Simply known as dryers, these versatile pieces of machinery can be used for an array of reasons across a multitude of industries.

They can also be built to fit virtually any factory layout as long as the facility meets a few basic requirements.

In this article, we'll discuss the different types of industrial drying ovens, their benefits, and the industries they are most commonly used in.

What are Drying Ovens Used for?

Despite the fact that most people associate the word oven with the benefits of baking, industrial models are present in food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and even in painting processes.

The main job of an industrial oven is to remove moisture from substances or products. This means that it can be used for evaporation, incubation, sterilization, baking, and many other procedures. Keep in mind that industrial ovens vary in size, capacity, and shape, depending on what they are used for, so the perfect model will depend on the application it's given.

In the laboratory, it is important that all the right tools and equipment are present if a research study or set of experiments is to be carried out correctly. Choosing the correct equipment can be especially important if budgetary constraints are to be considered. Researchers should always be mindful of these factors and the unique needs of the study being carried out before choosing what to use in the laboratory setting.

Over the years, a staggering amount of specialized lab equipment has been developed, with modern-day computer-aided equipment taking more of an active role in all kinds of projects. For the engineer, this is no different than any other scientist, as the demands of their particular field of study need specific, specialized lab equipment if their work is to be carried out to the best of their ability. Some of the essential Laboratory Equipment for engineers is discussed in this article.

Mechanical Hand Tools

The basics of any engineering toolkit, mechanical hand tools also have their place within the laboratory, whether it is a small research lab or large commercial enterprise. Simple tools including wire strippers, shear cutters, precision screwdrivers, leads, and alligator clips should all be on hand to make complex tasks much easier and help with the basic tasks.

General Laboratory Equipment

As the needs of a project can be varied, it is prudent to have general lab equipment on hand to carry out the functions necessary for accurate testing. This can include freezers, hot plates, fume hoods, and Bunsen burners.


A multimeter (otherwise known as a multitester or VOM) is an essential piece of equipment that is one of the most widely used tools in engineering laboratories. They can either have analog or digital displays and measure voltage, current, and resistance. There are two versions of the multimeter – hand-held and bench instruments, which can measure values to a high degree of accuracy.

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  Facts About Scandium
Posted by: llkktth170 - 11-02-2022, 11:02 PM - Forum: EasyDesktop 10 - No Replies

Facts About Scandium

Scandium is a silvery metal that is soft and has a density of about three times that of water. Scandium is a transition metal and is also considered a rare earth element due to similar chemical properties (such as difficulty in extracting and in separating from other elements) and existence in the same ores, according to Chemicool.

Scandium is the 31st most abundant element on Earth, according to Periodic Table, with about 22 parts per million abundance by weight in Earth's crust, according to Chemicool.

Scandium is scattered thinly and has been found in over 800 minerals. Within these minerals, scandium is found in its oxide form (Sc2O3, also known as scandia or scandium oxide), according to Scandium Mining. There are many commercial uses for scandium even though the cost of scandium is typically high – several thousand dollars per kilogram for scandium oxide and up to a few hundred thousand dollars per kilogram for pure Scandium Metal, according to Chemistry Explained.


Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, inventor of the periodic table, predicted the existence and properties of scandium (which he called "ekaboron" — similar to boron) in 1869, according to the New World Encyclopedia. Lars Fredrick Nilson, a Swedish chemist, when examining the spectra of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite, discovered the element in 1879. The element was named for the Latin word for Scandinavia, "Scandia," due to the minerals in which Scandium Oxide was at that time found to exist only in the Scandinavian Peninsula, according to Peter van der Krogt, a Dutch historian. Per Teodor Cleve, a Swedish chemist, made the link that the new element discovered by Nilson was the same as the proposed element described by Mendeleev.

In the first attempt to isolate scandium, Nilson and his team processed 10 kilograms of euxenite and were able to produce about two grams of scandium oxide. According to the New World Encyclopedia, metallic scandium wasn't produced for the first time until 1937 by Werner Fischer, Karl Brünger, and Hans Grienseisen, German chemists. In 1960, 99 percent pure scandium was produced.

What is a master alloy and how is it different from a traditional alloy? And why is the use of Master Alloys so important in the field of jewelry? We find out in this article.

Most of the alloys in our catalog fall under the definition of master alloy and the question of what exactly is meant by this definition may arise.

An alloy is a compound made up of two or more elements, of which at least one is a metal. The characteristics of an alloy such as hardness, strength and even color are generally different from those of the elements that constitute it, for example copper and tin, both relatively soft, form the more resistant bronze.

An Aluminium Based Master Alloy is a particular type of alloy designed to be added to a pure metal, in our case gold or silver, in order to modify its characteristics. A pre-master alloy is a master alloy from which a fundamental element has been subtracted. In our field, it is generally a master alloy from which silver was stolen for logistical reasons.

Why it is necessary to use a master alloy?
Most Pure Metals are not suitable for technical applications. Pure gold, for example, is extremely soft; this feature makes it easily workable and is one of the reasons for its success in jewelry, but a jewel made of pure gold would easily bend if treated without too much care and would not have sufficient wear resistance. The same considerations apply to silver. For this reason, pure gold is generally transformed into a gold alloy, according to the standard proportions indicated in twenty-fourths, or carats (K).

Until the Second World War, the most popular alloys were mainly formed by three elements: Gold, Silver and Copper.

With the evolution of technique, jewelry has required increasingly specialized performance from alloys, this has led to the need to study the use of new elements to be added to precious metals, which are able to drastically change their characteristics. So we went from having alloys composed of two or three elements, to new formulations that come to contain even 10, effectively increasing the complexity of the product.

What characteristics can a master alloy act on?

Once added to the precious metal, a Calcium Based Master Alloy can affect:


A feature especially requested by users of gold, whose color can be changed to pink, gray-white or various shades of yellow.


Perhaps the most important feature, as gold and silver are relatively soft when in their pure state. The hardness is controlled through the Rare Earth Master Alloys both directly, with the simple addition of alloying elements, and indirectly, making the precious metal capable of undergoing hardening heat treatments.

Melting temperature

It is another important parameter that in some applications it is useful to be able to control. Suppose we need to weld a joint, to do this we can use a particular alloy, which must melt at a lower temperature than the metal that forms the edges of the joint, in this way we will perform a particular type of welding called brazing.

The control of the melting temperature is also important in the case of casting with wax setting of stones, where too high a temperature of the metal could irreparably damage the stones.


Fluidity is an important factor especially in investment casting applications. It can be described as the ability of a liquid metal to faithfully fill an elaborately shaped pattern, such as a grid or filigree.

Generally, the fluidity of precious metals increases as the casting temperature increases, but this can cause some side effects, such as interference between metal and refractory material, or evaporation of low-melting alloy elements. To overcome these problems, some elements, such as silicon, can be inserted in the master alloys for investment casting, which are able to increase the fluidity in the liquid state of the metal. In this article we have talked in detail about the role of silicon in investment casting alloys.

Metalmen distributes a wide range of pure metals for all your application requirements. Pure metals are those metals that have not been alloyed with other metallic elements; commercially High Purity Metals are 99% pure minimum. Some of the metals listed below are available as commercially pure and many can be manufactured to be extremely pure, often 99.999% minimum, referred to as "five nines min."

For example, Aluminum 1100 is considered to be commercially pure aluminum – it is 99% pure minimum. Our high purity aluminum can be manufactured up to 99.999% pure. Please note that we will seek to attain the purity level that you request; for example, 99.9%, 99.99% min. If your application demands pure metals, call us or send us your request for quote (RFQ). Our staff is prepared to work with you to determine the purity or dimensional options available to get you the pure materials that you need. Please note that not all metals can be made in all form at high purities.

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